What were the ends and means of the Carolingian reform of ecclesiastical life in the Frankish kingdoms? In particular, what was the connection between literacy and proper Christian worship?

What were the ends and means of the Carolingian reform of ecclesiastical life in the Frankish kingdoms? In particular, what was the connection between literacy and proper Christian worship?

Make sure to reference and source:
– Carolingian Civilization (A Reader Second Edition) edited by Paul Edward Dutton: CHAPTER 1
– Carolingian Monasticism and the Cluniac Sign Lexion
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