Topic: Passage in Paper Details
Topic: Passage in Paper Details
A. Create an argument diagram that clearly and completely denotes the inferential relations among the various parts of the argument in the passage. B. Provide a critical analysis of the passage by doing the following: 1. Discuss the implicit statements used in the reasoning of the chosen passage. 2. Discuss any tacit statements used in the reasoning of the chosen passage. 3. Discuss the acceptability of the assumptions in the chosen passage. 4. Discuss the quality of the reasoning used to arrive at the conclusion from the assumptions in the chosen passage. a. Explain any named fallacies that the chosen passage commits. b. Discuss any validity of the deductive arguments used in the chosen passage. c. Discuss any strength of the inductive arguments used in the chosen passage. C. When you use sources to support ideas and elements in a paper or project, provide acknowledgement of source information for any content that is quoted, paraphrased or summarized. Acknowledgement of source information includes in-text citation noting specifically where in the submission the source is used and a corresponding reference, which includes: • Author • Date • Title • Location of information (e.g., publisher, journal, or website URL) *** PASSAGE *** . . . Science has set before us decisions of immense consequence. We can pursue medical research with a clear sense of moral purpose or we can travel without an ethical compass into a world we could live to regret. Science now presses forward the issue of human cloning. How we answer the question of human cloning will place us on one path or the other. Human cloning is the laboratory production of individuals who are genetically identical to another human being. . . . Human cloning is deeply troubling to me, and to most Americans. Life is a creation, not a commodity. (Applause.) Our children are gifts to be loved and protected, not products to be designed and manufactured. Allowing cloning would be taking a significant step toward a society in which human beings are grown for spare body parts, and children are engineered to custom specifications; and that’s not acceptable. . . . I believe all human cloning is wrong, and . . . ought to be banned, for the following reasons. First, anything other than a total ban on human cloning would be unethical. Research cloning would contradict the most fundamental principle of medical ethics, that no human life should be exploited or extinguished for the benefit of another. (Applause.) Yet a law permitting research cloning, while forbidding the birth of a cloned child, would require the destruction of nascent human life. Secondly, anything other than a total ban on human cloning would be virtually impossible to enforce. Cloned human embryos created for research would be widely available in laboratories and embryo farms. Once cloned embryos were available, implantation would take place. Even the tightest regulations and strict policing would not prevent or detect the birth of cloned babies. Third, the benefits of research cloning are highly speculative. Advocates of research cloning argue that stem cells obtained from cloned embryos would be injected into a genetically identical individual without risk of tissue rejection. But there is evidence, based on animal studies, that cells derived from cloned embryos may indeed be rejected. Yet even if research cloning were medically effective, every person who wanted to benefit would need an embryonic clone of his or her own, to provide the designer tissues. This would create a massive national market for eggs and egg donors, and exploitation of women’s bodies that we cannot and must not allow (The White House, 2002).