## Orlistat practical report

Orlistat practical report

practical report on the drug Orlistat – few questions need to be answered, graphs drawn and research to be conducted for the result formulation… this needs to be done accurately as it is vital for the results to be correct for the graph to be precise. there is a document attached which is the one that needs to be used to answer questions in.

there is a practical protocol which tells u the methodology of the practical being carried out and a document containing vocabulary which would be important to use when answering the questions so please try to include as many complicated words from that document if possible.

please also find attached graph paper so that graphs can be Hand Draw preferably onto that and thats been attached as a Powerpoint

WORKING WITH DILUTIONS:

Solutionsused in experiments – particularly drug solutions –often start out at much higher concentrations than actuallyrequired for the experiment (this is mostly to help with storage of the drug and also to save time). It is therefore frequently necessary to dilute these solutions to a desired level before use. This requires a working knowledge of the principles of diluting, dilution factors, concentration factors and the calculations involved (which are very simple).

Once you understand dilution factors, you will be able to make up a solution of drug to any volume with a specific concentration!

Example:

DEFINITIONS:

Aliquot: a measured sub-volume of original sample.

Stock concentration: the concentration of the starting or original aliquot (e.g. the concentrated drug solution)

Diluent: material with which the sample is diluted

Dilution factor (DF): ratio of:

final volume/aliquot volume (final volume = aliquot + diluent)

Concentration factor (CF): ratio of:

aliquot volume divided by the final volume (inverse of the dilution factor)

N.B.

• Dilution/concentrations factors apply regardless of concentration units (i.e. whether the concentration is expressed as mass/volume (e.g. mg/ml) or as molarity (M, mM, µM etc.))

• High dilutions are usually expressed exponentially (i.e.: a solution which has been diluted a million fold is termed a 106 dilution, or is 10-6 concentration).

EXAMPLES

1. If you have a dilution factor of 1:10 that means 1 ml of solution (e.g. drug) is diluted INTO 10 ml of diluent.

In practice, that means: 1ml of solution IN 9 ml diluent.

In other words, a dilution factor of 1:10 is the same as saying “the solution was diluted 10-fold” or the that the solution was diluted by 10 times

Let’s say the starting concentration of our drug solution was 100 µM. What would the concentration be if we diluted the drug solution by a factor of 10 (i.e. a dilution factor of 1:10)?

100 / 10 = 10

New concentration is 10 µM

2. Here is a more complex example involving volumes:

How would you prepare 20 mL of drug solution that needs to be diluted using a dilution factor of 1:50?

1. Work out the volume of drug solution required to make up into 20 ml:

20 (ml) / 50 (dilution factor) = 0.4 ml

i.e. you will need 0.4 ml IN 20 ml to dilute the drug solution

2. How much diluent is required?

20 ml – 0.4 ml = 19.6 ml

3. In other words, to make a drug solution that has been