Ways in which diverse peoples define what is and is not music

Ways in which diverse peoples define what is and is not music

Chapter 1 Objectives
In this chapter, students will learn the following:
•    Ways in which diverse peoples define what is and is not music
•    Five propositions for exploring world music
Overview
Diverse peoples of the world define music in different ways. The question “What is music?” can yield radically different responses. Five propositions for exploring world music provide a point of departure regarding what music is and what it is not. These propositions should stimulate you to think about and discuss your own ideas about what music is.
Part 1: Information and Questions
1. Define and/or Comment on the following terms:
Key Terms    Definitions, Explanations or Comments
Qu’ran

Qu’ranic recitation

Tone

Ethnocentrism

Human Intention and Perception Approach

Five Propositions for Exploring World Music    Explanations or Comments
The basic property of all music is sound

The sounds (and silences) that comprise a musical work are organized in some way

Sounds are organized into music by people; thus, music is a form of humanly organized sound

Music is a product of human intention and perception

The term music is inescapably tied to western culture and its assumptions

2. This example (CD 1, track 1) by a well-known Brazilian band was used to?a. start a riot at a song contest?b. help McDonalds sell hamburgers?c. challenge listeners’ conception of silence?d. recite the Qur’an?Answer:
3. The “musical elements” you perceive during a performance of John Cage’s piece 4’33? in a concert hall might include the?a. humming of the air-conditioning system?b. coughing of someone in the audience?c. creaking of seats in the audience?d. all of the above?Answer:
4. This piece (CD 1, track 3, “Manzairaku”) is an example of?a. Japanese gagaku?b. Qur’anic chant?c. John Cage’s 4’33??d. None of the above?Answer:
5. Which of the following is FALSE regarding this example (CD 1, track 2, “Ode to Joy”)?a. It is comprised of tones and each tone has duration, frequency, amplitude and timbre?b. It is intended to be perceived as music by its performers?c. It is understood and appreciated by all people everywhere?d. It is a form of humanly organized sound?Answer:
6. This example (CD 1, track 4, “KhawatimSoorat: Al baqara”)?a. is practiced by Muslims?b. is humanly organized sound?c. is not considered music by its practitioners?d. all of the above?Answer:

Part 2: Your Chapter 1 Reflections
What, in this chapter, was new to me?

What, in this chapter, would I like to know more about?

Listen to all of the music examples from Chapter 1.
Of the musical examples in this chapter, which did I enjoy the most? Why?
Please include any of the “Musical Characteristics To Listen For” you notice in the music.

Of the musical examples in this chapter, which did I enjoy the least or find to be challenging to listen to? Why?
Please include any of the “Musical Characteristics To Listen For” you notice in the music.

Other thoughts or comments about Chapter 1

CHAPTER TWO—HOW MUSIC LIVES: A musicultural approach
Complete the following and save it in WORD (.docx).
Attach a file of the same (and do a copy/paste into the text box too as a back up) and submit right here in the
Chapters 1, 2, and 3 Music Journals Assignment
Your Name
Chapter 2 Objectives
In this chapter, students will learn the following:
•    The anthropological and ethnomusicological definitions of music as sound and culture.
•    Different types of musical meaning
•    The process of syncretism
•    Connections between music and spirituality, dance, ritual, commodity, and patronage
•    The processes of musical transmission and creation
•    The process of creative transformation which is an important part of music traditions across the world
Chapter Overview
Meaning, identity, transmission, and creation in music occur at the intersection of music as sound and music as culture.
Ethnomusicology and anthropology have examined this intersection resulting in definitions and concepts of culture.
Identities and expressions may be discovered through examinations of society, culture, community, nation, diaspora, and self. These identities may then come together through the process of syncretism.
Musical tradition is a process of creative transformation. These transformations are very much a part of music traditions worldwide.
Chapter 2 Part 1: Information
1. Define and/or Comment the following terms:
Key Terms    Definitions or Explanations or comments
Ethnomusicology

Musicultural

Identity

Culture (Tylor definition)

Society

Social institutions

Cultures (as social entities distinct from societies)

Nation-state

Nation

Nationalist music

Diaspora

Virtual communities

Musical syncretism

Fieldwork

Rituals

Compositions

Interpretation

Improvisation

Arranging

Tradition (as a process)

Chapter 2 Music Journal – Part 2: Questions/Music Listening and Analysis
The Gamelan—An Indonesian Orchestra of Bronze:
From Java (CD1-7) and from Bali (CD2-12) – A gamelan consists of a large number of instruments—mainly idiophone percussion instruments such as gongs, drums, cymbals, and xylophone-like bronze metallophones played in intricately coordinated ways. Although gamelan musicians from Bali and Java employ similar instruments, have related histories, and musical principles, their musics are strikingly different in sound and character.
2. Listen to CD1-7 and CD2-12 and describe the sounds, timbres, and elements of each. Briefly compare and contrast the two performances.
CD1-7    CD2-12
Style(s)    Javanese Gamelan    Balinese Gamelan
Briefly describe the various sounds

How do you think the sounds may have been produced?

In which ways are the performances similar?

In which ways are the performances dissimilar?

Multiphonic Throat Singing:
Singers in the khoomii tradition of Mongolia, the khoomei tradition of Tuva, and the chant traditions of Tibetan monks produce simultaneous multiple tones through manipulations of their vocal apparatus, as demonstrated, for example, on CD ex. # 1-6. In this recording, all sounds except for the stringed lute-like instrument (tobshuur) are produced by the human voice.
3. Listen to this recording from Mongolia CD1-6 ChandamiNutag, describe the various sounds you are hearing.
4. Now, listen to a performance by Paul Pena on CD1-18.  Pena was a blind blues musician who mastered the kargyraa subtype of Tuvankhoomei.  Pena traveled to Tuva and won the national khoomei competition with this song.  Listen to this recording and describe the sounds Pena produces.  How would you categorize them? Blues? Tuvan?  A combination of both?
5. Compare and contrast the two recordings in the chart below:
CD1-6    CD1-18
Style(s)    Mongolian khoomei    Blues/Tuvankhoomei synthesis
Briefly describe the various vocal sounds

How do you think the sounds may have been produced?

In which ways are the performances similar?

In which ways are the performances dissimilar?

Chapter 2 Music Journal – Part 3: Music Beyond The Textbook
6. Here is your chance to select and profile two songs from sources beyond our textbook recordings—from your own music collection—mp3, mp4 downloads, CD’s and DVD’s; and from numerous web sources for music and video such as YouTube, npr.org, etc.
One song must be an example of World Music—traditional/indigenous or popular, the other song can be from any country (United States is OK) and represent any genre (rock, hip-hop, blues, gospel, black metal, R&B, jazz, country, soul, etc.)
Your two song selections are not exclusively tied to Chapter One Content, this gives you latitude to freely select music you ENJOY and WANT TO LISTEN TO.
Include material facts (you may not be able to provide all of these – so its OK to omit those you are unable to find) about each song you select such as:
•    The song title
•    The name of the band or performing artist, the musicians and their respective instruments or voice, the composer(s), the recording dates, and record label.
•    The style “genre” of music represented in your song.
•    Connections between the song and society.
•    The importance of the primary performer of the song.
•    A history of the song such as considerations of other performers who may have also recorded it—a cover song.
•    List any musical characteristics you notice in the music such as tempo, texture, timbres, mood conveyed, meter, dynamics, improvisational style, etc.  Look at our “Musical Characteristics To Listen For” page for help with this.
•    Your connections to the song – its meaning for you, its identity.
•    What mood was conveyed in the music?  How did the music make you feel?
•    Did the music remind you of other music you were already familiar with?
•    Was the music complex – many different layers of musical activity going on at the same time; or was the texture less busy – containing just one, two, or three different parts occurring at the same time.

Part 4: Your Chapter 2 Reflections

What, in this chapter, was new to me?

What, in this chapter, would I like to know more about?

Listen to all of the music examples from Chapter 2. Of the musical examples in this chapter, which did I enjoy the most? Why? Please include any of the “Musical Characteristics To Listen For” you notice in the music.

Of the musical examples in this chapter, which did I enjoy the least or find to be challenging to listen to? Why? Please include any of the “Musical Characteristics To Listen For” you notice in the music.

Other thoughts or comments about Chapter 2

Additional sources to consider:

(Mongolian khoomii folkloric performance with instrumental ensemble accompaniment)

(Javnese dance with gamelan accompaniment)

(Couples “Rabbit Dance” at a powwow, Fallon Rodeo Days, 1996)

(Powwow competition dancing: Men’s Traditional dance)

CHAPTER 3—HOW MUSIC WORKS, PART I: Rhythm
Complete the following and save it in WORD (.docx).
Attach a file of the same (and do a copy/paste into the text box too as a back up) and submit right here in the
Chapters 1, 2, and 3 Music Journals Assignment
Your Name
Chapter 3 Objectives
In this chapter students will learn:
•    The four basic properties of tones
•    The elements of rhythm
•    Insights on how various cultures employ rhythm in their musics
Overview
There are four basic properties of tones—duration, frequency, amplitude, and timbre. This chapter focuses upon rhythm, the fundamental musical correlate of music. The elements of rhythm are beat, subdivision, meter, metric cycle, accent, syncopation, tempo, and free rhythm. Each of these elements is explored through participatory exercises and recorded examples.
Chapter 3 Part 1: Information
1. Define and/or Comment the following terms:
Key Terms    Definitions or Explanations or comments
Duration

Frequency

Timbre

Amplitude

Rhythm

Sixteenth notes

Eighth notes

Beat

Subdivision

Measure

Meter

Metric cycle

Accents

Syncopation

Tempo

Part 2: Listening, Identifying, and Describing what you are hearing
Open a tab on your computer, click on our course in Canvas and open the “Music Characteristics You Need To Know and Listen For” page to use while you are listening to the following selections–this will help you to “target” specific characteristics with your ears while the music is playing.
Click on and listen to the following recording of music featuring a variety of different rhythms:
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) Twelve Variations on Ah vousdirai-je, Maman, The Theme followed by Variations I, II, III, IV, V, VI, and VII

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) Twelve Variations on Ah vousdirai-je, Maman Variations VIII, IX, X, XI, and XII

2. After hearing the Theme, what did you notice about the music in Variation I?  How was it different than the Theme?  It what ways was it similar to the Theme?
3. Similarly, as you listen to each new Variation, make note of how the music has changed from the previous Variation, notice how the original Theme is being presented in each Variation.  Use the material in Chapter 3 pages 34-37 and the “Music Characteristics You Need To Know and Listen For” page to assist you here.
4. Listen to and describe what you notice in the recording below “Raga Hem Gihag”.   After Ravi Shankar’s opening remarks dedicating the performance to his teacher who had just died–Allauddin Khan, the Raga begins just before the 2 minute mark.   Be sure to write down what you notice about rhythms and about tempo here.  How is this music different from the Mozart music you just listened to above?
5. After listening to the first 5 minues of the raga, jump ahead to the 27:20 mark.  Describe what you notice happening in this section of the raga?

Raga – Hem Gihag – Ravi Shankar playing Sitar, Ali Akbar Khan playing Sarod, and AllaRakha playing Tabla

6. From Our World Music Listening Links page, click on the link to CD-1 and then Listen to 1-20 = 020 “CielitoLindo” (Mexican mariachi).
This piece is in:?a. duple meter (2 beats per measure – 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2)?b. triple meter (3 beats per measure – 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3)?c. quadruple meter (4 beats per measure – 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4)?d. seven-beat meter – (7 beats per measure – 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7)
Answer:
7. The accent pattern for the meter of this piece is arranged as follows (S=strong beat, w=weak beat):?a. S w w S w w…?b. S w ww S w ww…?c. S w S w S w S w…?d. S w w S w S w w S w…
Answer:
8. The tempo of this music has:?a. a steady, very fast tempo?b. a tempo that changes from very slow to very fast?c. a steady, medium tempo?d. an inconsistent tempo
Answer:

Chapter 3 Music Journal
Part 3: Some Additional Cool Music to consider for your Chapter 3 Reflections in Part 4

Karandila Roma [Gypsy] brass band in a club.

BratqAngelovi Roma (Gypsy) Brass Band in performance.  Note the two different technologies in Trumpet design—one has the common modern piston valves while the other has rotary valves much like those on a French Horn.

Karandila Roma Gypsy Culture Brass Band from Bulgaria
Note the two woodwind instruments employed here—the clarinet and the alto saxophone.  And another good look at the two different technologies in Trumpet design—piston valve and rotary valve models.

http://www.theworld.org/2010/12/01/karandila-junior/
Karandila Jr.

http://www.theworld.org/2010/12/01/karandila-junior/
Karandila Jr. at the Ost Club in Bulgaria

The Mariachi Band:
Guitarron – (the very large guitar shaped instrument with 6 strings—responsible for the bass notes in the music)
Vihuela – (the 5 string convex shaped guitar-like instruement),
The Classic or Spanish Guitar
Trumpets
Violins

Chapter 3 Music Journal
Part 4: Reflections
What, in this chapter, was new to me?
What song seems to stand out for you here?

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