Cultural intelligence and capability
Cultural intelligence and capability
Critical Reflection Essay
After creating your cultural mind map in previous weeks, you will have built an understanding of how our personal culture is influenced. This next assignment helps you to build your understanding of how this awareness of influences on your personal culture can help you to be more culturally intelligent.
Write an essay to critically reflect on why cultural self-awareness is important to develop cultural intelligence.
• You should first define the term ‘cultural self-awareness’ and ‘cultural intelligence’.
• Discuss how and why cultural self-awareness assists people to be more culturally intelligent.
• For the Why part (use readings) and the How part (use your own experiences such as aspects from your mind map).
• Using at least 4 readings covered in the first 7 weeks, describe your experiences (such as one or two aspects you explored in your mind-map) that illustrate the points being made in the readings.
Structuring your critical reflection
Your critical reflection should be an example of academic writing. As a reflective essay, we expect you to write in the first person when you are recounting examples from your experience. Therefore, you will be moving between third person when you discuss the readings and first person when you describe your experiences that illustrate the points being made in the readings.
Your essay should have an introduction that includes the following information:
o Orientation – background information
o Putting the assessment task into your own words
o A thesis statement/topic: an initial thesis statement
? introduces and anchors your argument or discussion
? expresses your viewpoint or stand on the subject
o An outline of the structure of your reflection – what are the different parts
o Scope – this is optional. It may not be appropriate to the reflection. The scope should outline the limits of the discussion.
2. Body paragraphs
o Your paragraphs must include a topic sentence, supporting sentences (theory and personal examples) and a concluding sentence.
o Integrate references into your points wherever possible.
o You should aim to have 4- 6 paragraphs in the body of an essay of this length (not including the introduction or conclusion).
Ensure your conclusion does the following:
o Restate and qualify your thesis statement from your introduction
o Provide a summary of the key points covered in the body of your reflection.
Theoretical ideas you use in this writing will come from outside sources. Ensure that all sources of information are correctly referenced in the text and in a reference list on a separate page at the end of your critical reflection.
If you are unsure of how to reference correctly, see the referencing style guide for APA6th available on the Charles Darwin University Library website. (link on right).
In – text references
An in-text reference is a way of showing that a phrase, sentence or idea is taken from another author or authors. To find out more about this academic skill, try the exercise opposite to help you learn how to use in-text references correctly.
It is ok for you to share ideas and discuss these with fellow students; however you cannot copy and paste what someone else has said into your assessment. Your assessment must be your own work. The link at right gives some great tips on how to avoid plagiarism.
When writing at University, you are expected to use an ‘academic’ style. The CUC100 handbook – Communicating at University has in depth information about academic writing.
Click image for a larger view
This week you should start to develop your ideas on why cultural self-awareness is important to develop cultural intelligence, through:
• Making sure you have read and understood the key readings
• Developing a thesis statement for your essay
Ensure you have read the specific pages of the following readings to develop your ideas for this essay. Read them with the purpose of supporting your ideas.
• Spencer-Oatey (2012) pp. 1-17
• Taipale (2012) pp. 173-178
• Russell (2011) pages 29-35 to identify critical reflection writing style
• Brislin, Worthley and McNab (2006) pp.40-43
• Quappe and Cantatore (2005) whole article.
• Flanja (2009) pp.112-114
Developing your critical reflection
A critical reflection is the process of identifying, analysing and explaining experiences in relation to issues. In this critical reflection there are three steps you need to complete:
1. Explain why cultural self-awareness is important to develop cultural intelligence.
2. Identify and analyse how your cultural self-awareness can develop in analysing beliefs, values, cultural practices, and/or social structures in your daily life (based on one or two aspects from your mind map).
3. Explain how these elements fit into a broader context in relation to the theories mentioned in Spencer-Oatey (2012), Taipale (2012), Russell (2011), Quappe and Cantatore (2005), and/or other relevant readings. Use these authors to support your analysis of how cultural self-awareness can help to build cultural intelligence (Brislin, Worthley and Mcnab (2006). You may also choose to explore ‘culture shock’ (Flanja 2009) and how to avoid it with cultural self-awareness and developing cultural intelligence. NOTE- Keep the references relevant to the ideas you are developing.
Writing an introduction
Your essay should have an introduction that includes the following types of information:
• Orientation (also known as the context/background for the essay)
• Thesis (your ‘argument’ or ‘claim’ or what you will ‘argue’)
• Outline (the organization of your essay: how the sub-arguments will be developed)
You can access free ALLSP assistance to extend your introduction and other writing skills.
As you write, come back to adjust this introduction if your ideas change.
Writing a thesis statement
Your essay should take a clear position (thesis) as to how and why cultural self-awareness is important to develop cultural intelligence. Use the video on the right to understand what a thesis statement is.
Have a go at writing a thesis statement for your critical reflection (this is a first draft). Your thesis statement only needs to be one sentence.
• Ask yourself – why is cultural self-awareness important to developing cultural intelligence?
• Think about issues associated with cultural awareness
• Jot down some ideas, particularly the focus for your critical reflection
Prepare your word document
• Open a word document.
• Copy and paste in the CUC107 coversheet.
• Insert header and footer that indicates: page number, your name, assignment 2 – critical reflection.
Last week you were asked to develop a thesis statement that gives a clear position (thesis) as to how and why cultural self-awareness is important to develop cultural intelligence.
This week you will use the readings to develop and support your idea on why self-awareness is important for cultural intelligence, and importantly, think of personal examples that illustrate these ideas (this is the ‘reflective’ part of a critical reflection essay). This will provide you with the content you need for the body of your essay.
Start to plan your critical reflection based on key ideas you want to explain.
• A plan with topic sentences for each paragraph is a helpful way to start.
• Make sure you cover the definitions of cultural self-awareness and cultural intelligence.
• Use at least one relevant personal experience to show you understand how cultural self-awareness helps to develop cultural intelligence.
Set up your document to fulfil presentation expectations below.
1. Write using word processing software.
o For Mac users, please save your files in a ‘.doc’ format.
o Word documents (not PDF files) are preferred as lecturers often use ‘Track Changes’ to provide feedback.
2. Label your Word document file with your name included e.g. John Green CUC107 Assignment 2.
3. Ensure that your Word document has the following formatting:
o 12 size font of Calibri, times or Arial
o 1.5 spacing
o One space between each paragraph
o Footer with page numbers, your name and student number
o Header with the assessment name e.g. Critical Reflection, CUC107 and date
This week, finalise your critical reflection. Take time to check that the introduction and conclusion help explain your main points and guide the reader to understand your point of view.
Understanding the assessment criteria
Step 1: Open your essay.
Take 10 minutes to examine the essay. Is it answering the question well? What is it telling your lecturer about your understanding of cultural self-awareness and its relationship to cultural intelligence?
Step 2: Open the Assessment Criteria, read the comments in each row and reflect on what marks your essay would attain.
Step 3: Before you click ‘submit’, do those few extra things to improve your essay.
Once you have completed this assessment, you need to upload the document through the Assessment Submission section of Learnline, then the ‘Assignment 2: Critical reflection essay’ link.
• This assignment is submitted using SafeAssign. If you wish to check your work for plagiarism before submitting it then use the ‘DRAFT ONLY’ safe assignment check.
• Label your Word document with your name included eg John Green CUC107 Assignment 2.
• Ensure you have your identification in the footer of the document. You can only submit one file for this assignment.
Due date: Monday Week 12
Length: 1500 – 1700 words
Using an excerpt from a video of people interacting within a space, analyse the various aspects of the scenario including the physical location and interactions between actors to highlight your understanding of safe spaces. Demonstrate your growing cultural capabilities by writing a report that analyses safe or unsafe spaces as depicted in your chosen clip. Ensure you include analysis of whether culturally safe spaces require cultural self-awareness and cultural intelligence and how this can be achieved in relation to the behaviours by people in your chosen video.
You need to write an academic report using formal language to:
• analyse the chosen filmed scenario for safe or unsafe spaces
• demonstrate your understanding of the characteristics of culturally safe or unsafe spaces by discussing those spaces identified in the film in relation to the research literature,
• provide recommendations for creating or sustaining culturally safe spaces based on the scenario.
See the link at right to a template for the report. Organise your report under the following sections and use the numbered headings as below for each section in the body of your report. Suggestions about what you should include under each heading are also provided. Try to keep to the word count for each section. Remember, word count guidelines are an indication only for each section (as maximum). Review the assessment criteria as well to ensure you understand that referencing, research and analysis are highly valued in the marking of your work. If you provide a great, long description of the scenario, this will not give you an excellent grade. Apply the literature review in the discussion and recommendations to show you understand the links between cultural self-awareness, cultural intelligence and the development of culturally safe spaces.
Title of Report
This should be on a separate page and include the title, your name and the date
Table of Contents
This should be on a separate page – remember to include page numbers.
(This is information that is included in the word document template)
1. Introduction (approx. 150 words)
1.1 Background (An orientation to the topic of cultural safety and safe spaces)
1.2 Scope(Explain what the report will focus on including what video, what particular scenes if the example depicts a safe or unsafe space).
1.3 Aim(Tell the reader what the report aims to do – i.e provide a summary and description and analysis of an example of a safe or unsafe space and recommend improvements to improve the safety of the space where appropriate).
2. Summary of video clip (approx. 150 words)
Summarise your chosen TV or Video excerpt. This is where you briefly explain the story line and key events related to the context of the safe or unsafe situation of this specific segment of a film in your own words. Your summary needs to include the following details:
o the name of TV show or movie
o the season and episode if it is a TV show or year released for movie
o the setting (is it social, academic or workplace?)
o a general overview of what the scene is about
o identify who the key characters are
3. Summary of literature (approx. 400 words and at least four sources- remember to include independent researched sources as well.)
This is where you demonstrate your understanding of the key concepts covered in the unit by using relevant literature. So you should include definitions of safe spaces, cultural intelligence and capabilities and cultural self-awareness and show how these are all linked to increasing our ability to create safe spaces.
4. Observations/description of Video (approx. 250 words)
In this section you should identify the behaviours and scenarios in the video that are evidence of the cultural safety issues displayed in the video. These observations should confirm your statement in the introduction about whether the space is safe or unsafe.
Some of the things to look for and describe are: Physical factors (size and layout of space, position of people in the space); Communication factors (Body language, Voice, Words); signs of inclusion or exclusion, displays of or lack of cultural intelligence. You could use the following table as guide and as a way of briefly describing in key words what you observed. Alternatively you might prefer to describe this in couple of paragraphs .
5. Discussion (approximately 400 words and at least four sources- remember to include independent researched sources as well. You can refer to the some you covered tin the literature review)
Use key elements within the film excerpt and the theory you have outlined in the literature review section to discuss your observations of the video and to support your view about whether each scene is a safe or unsafe space. For example you might write something like:
“In the early part of the film, Jane displayed a high level of cultural intelligence by adjusting her behaviour as soon as she became aware that her patient had never been in a hospital before. This had an instant effect on the patient who visibly relaxed and began to talk. This is an excellent example of what Brislin, Worthley and McNab (2006, p.40) define as cultural intelligence or the ability to adjust to another culture. Jane showed she was reading the other person’s uncomfortable body language and adjusted her approach appropriately to make the patient feel safe in that new place.”
6. Recommendations (approx. 200 words supported by academic sources.)
Your recommendations (for how the scenario film clip you describe should be changed to make the space safer) should be based on what you discussed in the analysis. So it will be a summary of the things that need to change to enable a safer space in the scenario depicted and requires references in text for your ideas.
7. Conclusion (approx. 150 words)
This is where you sum briefly everything covered in your report. So it would include: what the film clip covered, what it was about, what it showed regarding safe spaces, what needed to be changed if anything. (Don’t introduce new material or references into this section).
References (last section of report on separate page and not numbered)
For this report we expect you to use readings provided and utilised in your previous assignment as well as additional references you might source that relate to the particular context of the scenario depicted in your film. For example, if your video depicts bullying at school you may find articles on school bullying. This will be helpful for your discussion and recommendations. You should use the APA 6th referencing style in text and for the reference list at the end.
NB. Check how to reference correctly for multimedia. The references, title and content pages are not counted in your final word count.
As you think about which video clip to choose for assessment three- observe the way that various cultural groups are represented in fictional and non-fictional scenes.
The video clip in this week’s web-site learning materials about ‘active listening’ clearly shows a male businessperson first ignoring and then listening to advice from his female adviser. This illustrates active listening but there are also cultural norms being shown about male and female roles.
When you are looking at narrative films or documentaries, look for and try to comment on the hidden cultural communication that is also being shown.
Start to view some of the suggested video clips below and choose one that you wish to analyse and write about in the report. This will prepare you for writing a summary of the chosen clip next week.
Choose a scene
Choose a scene to analyse (about 3-10 minutes in length) from a TV program, video or movie that focuses on a conflict situation in a community, university/school or workplace. Although fictional the scene should depict a ‘real life’ situation. In other words avoid action films or over the top movies/shows. Avoid spending too much time looking for the ‘perfect scenes’ as the analytic report is the main focus. You are encouraged to choose from films/segments provided below.
As you view them, remember you will need to focus on writing a report answering:- How do cultural self –awareness and cultural intelligence help to create effective safe spaces?
Gervais, R. (Producer). (2010, March 30). Gareth’s Stapler (BBC Television broadcast) Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U1PHpkdvNOs
Bernstein, A. (Director). (2012, January 12). House of Lies Season 1 Episode 5 – Racist (Showtime television broadcast) Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MKPI5jSjt0M
Cleese, J.and Booth, C. (Writers) Fawlty Towers – Basil Gives Manuel a Language Lesson (BBC Television program) Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/embed/H-oH-TELcLE?autoplay=1
Lorry, C. Prady and Molaro (Producers) (2007 September 24). The Big Bang Theory – Who`s smarter dolphins or Zack? (Television series). Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VK-b1CtIATw
Scarlet Pictures (Producer) (2014) Black White woman from Black Comedy Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H33cPuwsY48 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7USOTlHBnTY
Holland, T. (Director). (1999, April 8). The one where Rachel smokes (Television broadcast). Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/embed/xRH_DhiKaeQ?autoplay=1
What clip should I use?
• Google video;
• download from iTunes;
• borrow from video shop/ local library/CDU library; or
• use something you may already own
Remember:-You need to correctly use APA reference so your tutor can find and view the video if they wish to.
Summarise your video clip
In the final report, you are required to provide a 150 word summary (approximately) of the scene you have chosen so the reader is able to understand what you are analysing.
Your summary needs to include the following details:
• the name of TV show or movie
• the season and episode if it is a TV show or year released for movie
• the setting (is it social, academic or workplace?)
• a general overview of what the scene is about
• identify who the key characters are
How does cultural self –awareness and cultural intelligence create effective safe spaces?
In assessment 2, hopefully you made connections between cultural self-awareness and cultural intelligence.
Assessment 3 requires you to articulate your understanding of these concepts in written form.
• write down the connections you identified in assessment 2 about cultural intelligence, and cultural self-awareness.
• think about what you have just learned about cultural judgments: how do effective cultural judgments create productive spaces?
• jot down some key points (with references)
Summarise the main ideas from relevant readings in your literature review
Along with the readings we have provided during the semester, you will need to conduct your own research by including at least two references apart from the film and set readings.
• Holley and Steiner (2005) – creating safe spaces
• Bruhn (2005) – culture brain interactions
• Brislin, Worthley and McNab (2006) – cultural intelligence
• Quappe and Cantatore (2005) – cultural awareness
• Russell (2011) – Third culture kid
• Flanja (2009) – culture shock & intercultural communication
• Spencer-Oatey (2012) – culture
• See CDU Library Summon for additional journal articles and books.
• Avoid referencing websites. You are expected to use academic texts. See the video link at right.
What is a report?
In this assessment, you need to produce a report that demonstrates your understanding of safe spaces. Report writing is an important skill which you will need to learn for university studies and possibly your future employment.
This specific report requires an analytical response in the third person (no personal language). Use these resources to familiarise yourself with what an analytical report is and how to write one:
• The CUC100 handbook – Communicating at University pp.189-253.
• The Academic Language and Learning Success Program runs regular free workshops and drop-in consultations.
In the last two weeks chose your video scene and thought about how cultural self –awareness and cultural intelligence can help to create safe spaces
This week you will
• Review what an analysis is and apply this technique to your video
• Identify the links between cultural empathy and effective social, academic and work settings.
• Consider how the literature can help to explain and analyse your chosen film scene.
What is an analysis?
In this assessment you are asked to write a report which includes analysis.
What is an analysis? Check the handbook – Communicating at University (Rolls and Wignell, 2014 pp. 17-22).
Analyse your video
Use the following framework to help analyse the excerpts. Remember to
Cultural Self – awareness:
• Do any of the characters display cultural self – awareness? How do they do this?
• What sort of insight into the character’s culture do you get?
• What sorts of behaviours indicate their awareness or lack thereof?
• How do the behaviours of the characters reflect their culture?
• Do they display characteristics of cultural intelligence? How do you know?
• How is cross – cultural communication being conveyed?
• Is cultural difference a source of conflict? What happens when conflict is present, how do the characters respond?
• Are there any cultural judgements present in this scene? Which characters make cultural judgements and if so how do they do this?
• What do the characters do to display cultural empathy? Why is this important for creating and sustaining safe spaces
• How do the characters create safe or unsafe spaces?
Visual cues to look for:
• Safe atmosphere
• Body language- eye contact, hand placement, stance, proximity
• Verbal communication (what and how)
What type of ‘safeness’: Are the characters safe from:
• Physical harm?
• Emotional Harm?
• Psychological harm?
Linking cultural empathy to effective social, academic and work settings
How does cultural empathy relate to safe spaces?
• How is cultural empathy related to creating effective work, social, or academic setting?
• How would you recognise that cultural empathy is occurring [or not] in any setting above?
• What aspects of the communications would signal effective use of cultural empathy in a specific setting?
Last week you reviewed what an analysis is, and worked out the links between cultural empathy and effective social, academic and work settings.
This week you will link the ideas and concepts about cultural judgments, and cultural empathy to build an understanding of safe spaces.
Why are cultural judgments and cultural empathy so vital in developing cultural capabilities and creating safe spaces?
To help you answer this question you could:
Think about the answers to the following questions in relation to the video clip you have chosen:
o What is the relationship between cultural judgments and cultural empathy?
o How do we negotiate and create safe spaces?
o Whose responsibility is it to create and sustain these spaces?
o Who could take an action to improve the situation being represented?
Work through the sections of the report and ensure that you integrate the literature to explain your ideas, especially in the discussion and the recommendations. There is an example of how to integrate literature into the discussion in the template.
Understanding the assessment criteria – Before you hit the ‘submit’ button.
Step 1: Open your draft report. Take 10 minutes to examine it.
Step 2: Open the Assessment Criteria and read the comments in each row. Have you demonstrated your understanding of the characteristics of culturally safe or unsafe spaces by discussing those identified in the film in relation to the research literature?
Have you satisfactorily met all of the assessment criteria?
Step 3: Think about what you could do to improve your report.
Step 4. At this stage of your study, aim for perfection in referencing.
CDU referencing link http://libguides.cdu.edu.au/apa
Once you have completed this assessment, you need to upload the document through the Assessment Submission section of Learnline, then the ‘Assignment 3: Safe space report’ link.
• This assignment is submitted using SafeAssign. If you wish to check your work for plagiarism before submitting it then use the ‘DRAFT ONLY safe assignment’ check
• Word documents are preferred as lecturers often use ‘Track Changes’ to provide you with feedback.
• Label your Word document file with your name included eg John Green CUC107 Assignment 3.
• Remember to put your name, student number and page numbers in the footer and title of assignment in the header.
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• Last updated: November 9, 2015