Comparative Analysis

Comparative Analysis
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Comparative Analysis

Length: 1,500 words.
6 reference

Referencing: You can use any major system of referencing you wish (e.g. Harvard, Chicago, etc.), as long as you do so consistently.
Include a word count at the end. A qualitative marking rubric is included below.

Task: The aim of the comparative analysis is to consolidate your understanding of the theories and issues discussed in the first half of the unit. You are required to critically analyse in comparative terms the central points of difference between two of the theories we discuss. In critically analysing these differences you should also argue whether these differences provide support for one theory more than the other.

Note: this is NOT a research essay. Some research is recommended to improve your understanding and aid your critical analysis. But extensive research is not required.

Answer ONE of the following questions ONLY.

1. Critically contrast and compare Rawls’ principles of justice with a Utilitarian view of justice (such as the one set out in Kymlicka, Chapter 2).

2. Critically contrast and compare Rawls’ theory of justice with Dworkin’s account of equality of resources with respect to their adequacy as theories of distributive egalitarianism that aim to be ‘ambition-sensitive’ and ‘endowment-insensitive’.
3. Critically contrast and compare Rawls’ claim that natural talents should be regarded as ‘collective assets’ (see Nozick pp. 228-231) with Nozick’s notion of self-ownership and his ‘entitlement’ theory of justice.

4. Critically contrast and compare Rawls’ view of a just distribution with the Analytical Marxist’s views about exploitation and alienation in a liberal society.
5. Critically contrast and compare the adequacy of Rawls’ focus on primary social goods in his theory of justice with Nussbaum’s focus on the central human capabilities. Page 2 of 2
Understanding and Knowledge Evidence of a deep and critical understanding of the relevant issues.
Argument and Critical Analysis An excellent argument and deep critical analysis of the relevant issues.
Originality and Creativity Demonstrates substantial originality and creativity.
Communication Excellently and clearly communicated; the correct length; little to no errors of language.
Research Excellent use and integration of relevant research; and correct referencing.

Further Reading
SECTION 1: EQUALITY AND INEQUALITY
Utilitarianism
J. J. C. Smart & B. Williams (eds)., Utilitarianism: For and Against (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1973), especially the essay by Williams.
R. Goodin, Utilitarianism as a Public Philosophy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995).
Rawls
John Rawls, A Theory of Justice, Ch 1, Section 9, Ch. 2, Sections 14-17, Ch. 3,
Section 22-3, 29.
Joshua Cohen, ‘Democratic Equality’, Ethics 99(4), 1989: 727-751.
Norman Daniels, (ed) Reading Rawls: Critical Studies on Rawls’ A Theory of
Justice (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1989), especially essays by Nagel,
Dworkin, Lyons and Scanlon.
Chandran Kukathas & Philip Pettit, Rawls: A Theory of Justice and its Critics,
(Cambridge: Polity Press, 1990), Chs. 1-4.
Samuel Sheffler, ‘Rawls and Utilitarianism’, Ch. 9 of Boundaries and Allegiances:
Problems of Justice and Responsibility in Liberal Thought, (Oxford University Press, 2001).
Dworkin
Ronald Dworkin, ‘What is Equality? Part 1: Equality of Welfare’, Philosophy &
Public Affairs, 10(3), 1981: 185-246
Justine Burley (ed.) Dworkin and Critics (Blackwell, 2004)
Stephen Guest, Ronald Dworkin, (Edinburgh University Press, 1997), 2nd edition, Ch. 10
Derek Parfit, ‘Equality or Priority?’, in The Ideal of Equality, M. Clayton and A.
Williams (eds.), MacMillan, 2000, pp. 81-125
Nozick
G. A. Cohen, ‘Self-ownership, world ownership, and equality: part II’, Social
Philosophy and Policy, 3:2, Spring, 1986, 77-96
Chandran Kukathas & Philip Pettit, Rawls: A Theory of Justice and its Critics,
(Cambridge: Polity Press, 1990), Ch. 5
Analytic Marxism
G.A. Cohen, Self-ownership, Freedom and Equality (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995).
Norman Geras, ‘The Controversy about Marx and Justice’, in Marxist Theory (Oxford University Press,
1989).
The Capabilities Approach
Formosa, Paul, and Catriona Mackenzie. “Nussbaum, Kant, and the Capabilities Approach to Dignity.” Ethical Theory and Moral Practice DOI: 10.1007/s10677-014-9487-y (2014).
Nussbaum, Martha C. “Human Functioning and Social Justice: In Defense of Aristotelian Essentialism.” Political Theory 20, no. 2 (1992): 202-246.
Nussbaum, Martha C., Creating Capabilites (Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 2011).
Nussbaum, Martha C., Frontiers of Justice (Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 206).
Amartya Sen, ‘Equality of What?’, Ch. 16 of Choice, Welfare, Measurement,
(Oxford: Blackwell, 1982)
Anartya Sen, Inequality Reexamined, (Clarendon Press: Oxford, 1992)
Amartya Sen, The Idea of Justice. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2009.
Additional Further Reading for Section 1
Elizabeth Anderson: ‘What is the Point of Equality?’, Ethics 109 (2), 1999
Richard Arneson, ‘Equality’, in Robert Goodin & Philip Pettit (eds.) A Companion to Political
Philosophy, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993)
Richard Arneson, ‘Equality of Opportunity for Welfare Defended and Recanted’,
Journal of Political Philosophy, 7 (1999): 488-97
G.A. Cohen, ‘On the Currency of Egalitarian Justice’, Ethics, 99 (4), 1989.
Samuel Scheffler, ‘What is Egalitarianism?’, Philosophy & Public Affairs, 31(1), 2003: 5-39
SECTION 2: DIVERSITY, CITIZENSHIP AND JUSTICE
Retributivism, Punishment and Justice
Braithwaite, J. & P. Pettit, 1990, Not Just Deserts, New York: Oxford University Press.
Cottingham, J., 1979, “Varieties of Retribution”, Philosophical Quarterly, 29: 238–46.
Duff, R. A., 2007, Answering for Crime: Responsibility and Liability in the Criminal Law, Oxford: Hart Publishing.
Feinberg, Joel, 1965, “The Expressive Function of Punishment,” The Monist, 49: 397–423;
Hampton, Jean, 1984, “The Moral Education Theory of Punishment,” Philosophy and Public Affairs, 13: 208–38;
Hart, Herbert L. A., 1968, Punishment and Responsibility: Essays in the Philosophy of Law, Oxford: Oxford University Press
Husak, D., 2008, Overcriminalization: The Limits of the Criminal Law, New York: Oxford University Press.
Murphy, J.G. & J. Hampton, 1988, Forgiveness and Mercy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Scanlon, T. M., 1999, “Punishment and the Rule of Law”; reprinted in Scanlon, The Difficulty of Tolerance: Essays in Political Philosophy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Shafer-Landau, R., 1996, “The Failure of Retributivism”, Philosophical Studies, 82: 289–316.
Shafer-Landau, R, 2000, “Retributivism and Desert”, Pacific Philosophical Quarterly, 81: 189–214.
Waldron, J., 1992, “Lex Talionis”, Arizona Law Review, 34: 25–51.
Communitarianism
Shlomo Avinieri and Avner de-Shalit (eds.), Communitarianism and Individualism,
(Oxford University Press, 1992)
Ethics,Volume 99 (4), 1989. Special issue on ‘Rawlsian Theory of Justice: Recent Developments’. Essays
by Galston, Buchanan & Kymlicka
Chandran Kukathas & Philip Pettit, Rawls: A Theory of Justice and its Critics, (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1990), Chs. 6 & 7
John Rawls, ‘The Idea of an Overlapping Consensus’, Lecture IV of Political Liberalism, (Columbia University Press, 1993)
Michael Sandel (ed.), Liberalism and its Critics, (Oxford: Blackwell, 1984)
Charles Taylor, ‘Atomism’ in Philosophy and the Human Sciences: Philosophical Papers, Volume 2, (Cambridge University Press, 1985)
Michael Walzer, Spheres of Justice: A Defence of Pluralism and Equality (Oxford:Blackwell, 1983)
Feminism
Eva Feder Kittay, Love’s Labour: Essays on Women, Equality and Dependency, (New York: Routledge,
1999)
Kymlicka, CCP, Ch. 9
Martha Minnow, ‘Justice Engendered’ in Goodin & Pettit (eds) Contemporary
Political Philosophy: An Anthology
Martha Nussbaum, Women and Human Development: The Capabilities Approach, (Cambridge
University Press, 2000), Ch. 1
Susan Moller Okin, ‘Justice and Gender’, Philosophy and Public Affairs, 16:1, Winter 1987, 42-72
Citizenship
Kymlicka, CPP, Ch 7, ‘Citizenship’
Nancy Fraser, ‘From Redistribution to Recognition? Dilemmas of Justice in a
“Postsocialist” Age’, Ch.1 of Justice Interruptus, (New York & London: Routledge, 1997)
Anne Philipps, ‘Defending Equality of Outcome’, Journal of Political Philosophy, 12(1), 2004: 1-19
Anne Philipps (ed.) Feminism and Politics, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998)
Iris Young, ‘Social Movements and the Politics of Difference’, Ch. 6 of Justice and the Politics of
Difference, (Princeton University Press, 1990)
Iris Young, ‘Equality of Whom? Social Groups and Judgments of Injustice’, Journal of Political
Philosophy, 9(1), 2001: 1-18
James Bohman & William Rehg (eds) Deliberative Democracy: Essays on Reason and Politics, (MIT
Press, 1997).
John Dryzek, Deliberative Democracy and Beyond: Liberals, Critics, Contestations, (Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 2000), Chs. 1 & 3
David Estlund (ed.), Democracy, (Malden, Mass. & Oxford: Blackwell, 2002)
James Fishkin & Peter Laslett (eds.), Debating Delilberative Democracy, (Malden, Mass. & Oxford:
Blackwell, 2003)
Amy Gutmann and Dennis Thompson, Why Deliberative Democracy? (Princeton University Press, 2004)
Will Kymlicka, & Wayne Norman (eds.), Citizenship in Diverse Societies (Oxford UP, 2000). Essays by Jane Mansbridge, ‘What Does a Representative Do?’ and
Melissa Williams, ‘The Uneasy Alliance of Group Representation and Deliberative Democracy’
Multiculturalism
Chandran Kukathas, ‘Are there any cultural rights?, Political Theory, 20 (1), 1992: 105-139
Will Kymlicka, ‘The Rights of Minority Cultures: Reply to Kukathas’, Political Theory 20 (1), 1992: 140-146
Brian Barry, Culture and Equality: Egalitarian Critique of Multiculturalism, (Oxford: Polity, 2001)
Joseph Carens, Culture, Citizenship and Community: a contextual exploration of justice as evenhandedness (Oxford University Press, New York, 2000)
William Galston, ‘Two Concepts of Liberalism’, Ethics, 105, 1995: 516-534
Robert Goodin, ‘Liberal Multiculturalism: Protective and Polyglot’, Political Theory, 34 (3), 2006: 289-303
Will Kymlicka, Multicultural Citizenship, Ch. 6
Will Kymlicka (ed.), The Rights of Minority Cultures, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995)
Will Kymlicka, Politics in the Vernacular: Nationalism, Multiculturalism and Citizenship, (Oxford University Press, 2001)
Will Kymlicka & Wayne Norman (eds.), Citizenship in Diverse Societies (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000). Essays in Parts I, III & VI.
Bhikhu Parekh, Rethinking Multiculturalism: Cultural Diversity and Political Theory, (Harvard University Press/Macmillan, 2000)
Joseph Raz, ‘Multiculturalism: A Liberal Perspective’, in Ethics in the Public Domain: Essays in the Morality of Law and Politics (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994)
Charles Taylor, ‘The Politics of Recognition’ in Amy Gutmann (ed) Multiculturalism, (Princeton University Press, 1994)
Global Justice
David Held, Democracy: From City-states to a Cosmopolitan Order?’ in Goodin and Pettit (eds.),
Contemporary Political Philosophy: An Anthology
Formosa, Goldman, Patrone (eds.), Kant on Politics and Teleology (Cardiff, University of Wales Press,
2014).
Peter Singer, ‘Famine, Affluence and Morality’, Philosophy & Public Affairs 1(3), 1972: 229-43.
Charles Beitz, ‘Does Global Inequality Matter?’, in Thomas Pogge (ed.), Global Justice, (Oxford: Blackwell, 2001).
Simon Caney, Justice Beyond Borders: A Global Political Theory, (Oxford University Press, 2005), Ch. 4. ‘Distributive Justice’
Charles Jones, Global Justice: Defending Cosmopolitanism, (Oxford University Press, 1999)
Journal of Ethics, 9 (1 & 2), January, 2005. Special Issue on Global Justice, especially articles by Beitz, Miller, Pogge, Risse, Jamieson.
Thomas Pogge, World Poverty and Human Rights: Cosmopolitan Responsibilities and Reforms, (Cambridge: Polity, 2002)
Thomas Pogge (ed.), Global Justice, (Oxford: Blackwell, 2001), especially essays by Pogge, Hinsch, Caney, Gosepath, O’Neill and Zaneti
John Rawls, The Law of Peoples, (Harvard University Press, 1999)
Samuel Sheffler, Boundaries and Allegiances: Problems of Justice and Responsibility in Liberal Thought, (Oxford University Press, 2001), Chs. 2, 5, 7
Peter Singer: One World: The Ethics of Globalisation, (Melbourne: Text Publishing, 2002

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