## Statistics

1. What do degrees of freedom (df) mean? Canbulat a al. (2015) did not provide the dft in” rel=”nofollow”>in their study. Why is it important to know the cif for a t ratio? Usin” rel=”nofollow”>ing the dfformula, calculate the df for this study.
2. What are the means and standard deviations (SDs) for age for the Buzzy in” rel=”nofollow”>intervention and control groups? What statistical analysis is conducted to determin” rel=”nofollow”>ine the difference in” rel=”nofollow”>in means for age for the two groups? Was this an appropriate analysis technique? Provide a rationale for your answer.
3. What are the t value and p value for age? What do these results mean?
4. What are the assumptions for conductin” rel=”nofollow”>ing the in” rel=”nofollow”>independent samples t-test?

5. Are the groups in” rel=”nofollow”>in this study in” rel=”nofollow”>independent or dependent? Provide a rationale for your answer.
6. What is the null hypothesis for procedural self-reported pain” rel=”nofollow”>in measured with the Wong Baker Faces Scale (WBFS) for the two groups? Was this null hypothesis accepted or rejected in” rel=”nofollow”>in this study? Provide a rationale for your answer.
7. Should a Bonferroni procedure be conducted in” rel=”nofollow”>in this study? Provide a rationale for your answer.
8. What variable has a result of t =-6.135,p = 0.000? What does this result mean?
9. In your opin” rel=”nofollow”>inion, is it an expected or unexpected fin” rel=”nofollow”>indin” rel=”nofollow”>ing that both t values on Table 2 were found to be statistically significant. Provide a rationale for your answer.
10. Describe one potential clin” rel=”nofollow”>inical benefit for pediatric patients to receive the Buzzy in” rel=”nofollow”>interven-don that combin” rel=”nofollow”>ined cold and vibration durin” rel=”nofollow”>ing IV in” rel=”nofollow”>insertion.

I. What are the assumptions for conductin” rel=”nofollow”>ing a paired or dependent samples t-test in” rel=”nofollow”>in a study? Which of these assumptions do you thin” rel=”nofollow”>ink were met by the Lin” rel=”nofollow”>indseth et al. (2014) study?
2. In the in” rel=”nofollow”>introduction, Lin” rel=”nofollow”>indseth et al. (2014) described a “2-week washout between diets.” What does this mean? Why is this important?
3. What is the paired t-test value for mood (irritability) between the participants’ consump-tion of high- versus low-aspartame diets? Is the result statistically significant? Provide a rationale for your answer.
4. State the null hypothesis for mood (irritability) that was tested in” rel=”nofollow”>in this study. Was this hypothesis accepted or rejected? Provide a rationale for your answer.
S. Which r value in” rel=”nofollow”>in Table 2 represents the greatest relative or standardized difference between the high- and low-aspartame diets? Is this t value statistically significant? Provide a ratio-nale for your answer.
6. Discuss why the larger t values are more likely to be statistically significant.
7. Discuss the meanin” rel=”nofollow”>ing of the results regardin” rel=”nofollow”>ing depression for this study. What is the clin” rel=”nofollow”>inical importance of this result?
8. What is the smallest, paired t-test value in” rel=”nofollow”>in Table 2? Why do you thin” rel=”nofollow”>ink the smaller t values are not statistically significant?
9. Discuss the statistical and clin” rel=”nofollow”>inical importance of these study results about the consump-tion of aspartame. Document your answer with a relevant source.
10. Are these study fin” rel=”nofollow”>indin” rel=”nofollow”>ings related to the consumption of high- and low-aspartame diets ready for implementation in” rel=”nofollow”>in practice? Provide a rationale for your answer.