## Interpreting Statistical Output for Data Analysis

Interpretin” rel=”nofollow”>ing Statistical Output for Data Analysis

Order Description
Unit 4 – MN504
Assignment Details
Interpretin” rel=”nofollow”>ing Statistical Output for Data Analysis PowerPoin” rel=”nofollow”>int Presentation
Purpose:
The purpose of this Assignment is to enable you to present the in” rel=”nofollow”>information that you gather from a systematic review on your PICOT topic. This activity will give you the experience to present what your research fin” rel=”nofollow”>indin” rel=”nofollow”>ings to others.
Directions:
1. Defin” rel=”nofollow”>ine the clin” rel=”nofollow”>inical key questions based on PICOT.
2. Briefly review the database selected for key clin” rel=”nofollow”>inical questions.
3. Identify the studies of the database search that are a Level I or II evidence. (Level I: Evidence from a systematic review of all relevant randomized controlled trials (RCT’s), or evidence-based clin” rel=”nofollow”>inical practice guidelin” rel=”nofollow”>ines based on systematic reviews of RCT’s
Level II: Evidence obtain” rel=”nofollow”>ined from at least one well-designed Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT))
4. Interpret the statistical results of the studies identified in” rel=”nofollow”>in Step 3.
5. Design a presentation.
a. Place results /overview of research in” rel=”nofollow”>in PowerPoin” rel=”nofollow”>int.
b. Length of the presentation should be 12–15 slides.
To view the Gradin” rel=”nofollow”>ing Rubric for this Assignment, please visit the Gradin” rel=”nofollow”>ing Rubrics section of the Course Resources.
Assignment Requirements:
Before fin” rel=”nofollow”>inalizin” rel=”nofollow”>ing your work, you should:
• be sure to read the Assignment description carefully (as displayed above)
• consult the Gradin” rel=”nofollow”>ing Rubric (under the Course Resources) to make sure you have in” rel=”nofollow”>included everythin” rel=”nofollow”>ing necessary;
• utilize spellin” rel=”nofollow”>ing and grammar check to min” rel=”nofollow”>inimize errors; and
• follow the conventions of Standard American English (correct grammar, punctuation, etc.);
• be well ordered, logical, and unified, as well as origin” rel=”nofollow”>inal and in” rel=”nofollow”>insightful;
• display superior content, organization, style, and mechanics; and;
• use APA 6th edition format
My PICOT is in” rel=”nofollow”>in the paper below:

Comparison of the Effects of Beta- Blockers and ACE Inhibitors in” rel=”nofollow”>in Reducin” rel=”nofollow”>ing Blood Pressure among Post- Cardiac Surgery Patients durin” rel=”nofollow”>ing Recuperation
Introduction
Beta-blockers are antagonists that in” rel=”nofollow”>inhibit the receptor sites for catecholamin” rel=”nofollow”>ines such as epin” rel=”nofollow”>inephrin” rel=”nofollow”>ine and norepin” rel=”nofollow”>inephrin” rel=”nofollow”>ine on adrenergic beta-receptors in” rel=”nofollow”>in the sympathetic nervous system (Akbar & Alorain” rel=”nofollow”>iny, 2014). Angiotensin” rel=”nofollow”>in-convertin” rel=”nofollow”>ing enzymes (ACE) in” rel=”nofollow”>inhibitors are a group of medications that prevent the production of the Angiotensin” rel=”nofollow”>in II hormone (Ong, Ong & Ho, 2013). The cardiovascular medications are clin” rel=”nofollow”>inically used to treat hypertension as well as the management of cardiovascular disorders such as myocardial in” rel=”nofollow”>infarction, heart arrhythmias, and ischemic heart diseases.
Research Question
What are the effects of Beta-blockers and ACE in” rel=”nofollow”>inhibitors on blood pressure in” rel=”nofollow”>in older patients who have undergone cardiac surgery?
P- (Patient/Population) – The target population comprises of older patients (aged 65 years and above and those who have undergone cardiac surgery.
I- (Intervention) – Beta-blockers. The control of blood pressure in” rel=”nofollow”>in post cardiac surgery patients is important to reduce the development of fatal cardiac conditions such as arrhythmias and myocardial in” rel=”nofollow”>infarction. The use of right medications and doses in” rel=”nofollow”>in the patients prevents the development of the negative effects and in” rel=”nofollow”>increases their effectiveness.
C- (Comparison) – Usin” rel=”nofollow”>ing ACE in” rel=”nofollow”>inhibitors. The medications in” rel=”nofollow”>inhibit the production of Angiotensin” rel=”nofollow”>in II hormone, which constricts blood vessels. Unlike beta-blockers, they are lin” rel=”nofollow”>inked to the development of kidney disorders and are not recommended in” rel=”nofollow”>in angioedema and renal artery stenosis patients. Besides, they have to be combin” rel=”nofollow”>ined with diuretics for better results, unlike beta-blockers that can be used alone.
O- (Outcome) – a reduction of blood pressure in” rel=”nofollow”>in post- cardiac surgery patients and the development of adverse cardiac conditions after their use.
T- (Time) –
Database: Cochrane Database.
Search Terms: “Beta blockers in” rel=”nofollow”>in cardiac patients” “ACE in” rel=”nofollow”>inhibitors in” rel=”nofollow”>in cardiac patients.”
The articles used are systematic reviews and therefore, present a high level of evidence to in” rel=”nofollow”>inform current practice.

Literature Review
Four studies were selected for review. They are works by Blessberger et al. (2014), Muller et al., (2000), Lane & Lip (2000) and Taverny et al. (2016).
Blessberger et al. (2014) carried out a systematic review to analyze the effectiveness of particular groups of drugs in” rel=”nofollow”>in the prevention of cardiac surgery-related mortality and morbidity. They reviewed 53 trials of post- cardiac surgery patients and 89 randomized trials of other types of operations. The researchers concluded that the use of beta blockers in” rel=”nofollow”>in the management of hypertension in” rel=”nofollow”>in post cardiac surgery patients was more beneficial than in” rel=”nofollow”>in their use to lower blood pressure in” rel=”nofollow”>in non- cardiac related heart surgeries and were more helpful than other medications (Blessberger et al., 2014). They note that in” rel=”nofollow”>in the post- cardiac surgery recuperatin” rel=”nofollow”>ing patients, beta-blockers prevent the development of heart arrhythmias, sudden heart attacks, strokes and the development of low blood pressure (Blessberger et al., 2014). The research in” rel=”nofollow”>indicates that beta-blockers have significant effects to post cardiac surgery patients more than other medications which were compared in” rel=”nofollow”>in the study.
Muller et al., (2000), carried out a similar study that focused on the use of Angiotensin” rel=”nofollow”>in Convertin” rel=”nofollow”>ing Enzyme (ACE) in” rel=”nofollow”>inhibitors to reduce blood pressure among post- operative cardiac patients. Notably, the patients in” rel=”nofollow”>in the study did not have any significant differences in” rel=”nofollow”>in their diastolic arterial pressure, their heart rates or the cardiac in” rel=”nofollow”>indexes. On the contrary, patients in” rel=”nofollow”>in one group had a significant difference with patients in” rel=”nofollow”>in other groups. Muller et al. concluded that the angiotensin” rel=”nofollow”>in convertin” rel=”nofollow”>ing enzyme in” rel=”nofollow”>inhibitor drug reduced the in” rel=”nofollow”>incidence of postoperative hypertension. The study is of significance to this research as it in” rel=”nofollow”>indicates that in” rel=”nofollow”>in post cardiac operative patients, the use of ACE in” rel=”nofollow”>inhibitors did not have other positive effects other than the control of blood pressure, unlike the use of beta-blockers.
Lane and Lip carried out a study to determin” rel=”nofollow”>ine the effects of pressure-lowerin” rel=”nofollow”>ing medications among patients with hypertension and symptomatic peripheral arterial disease (2013). They conducted a systematic review of articles from the Cochrane database and the selection criteria used was of symptomatic patients and those who had undergone peripheral arterial disease surgery at least one month earlier. In a comparison of the effects of ACE in” rel=”nofollow”>inhibitors again” rel=”nofollow”>inst a placebo in” rel=”nofollow”>in patients, they noted that in” rel=”nofollow”>in addition to a drop in” rel=”nofollow”>in the blood pressure of the patients, there was a declin” rel=”nofollow”>ine in” rel=”nofollow”>in the prevalence of cardiovascular events. However, an evaluation of the effects of beta- blockers on peripheral arterial disorder patients after surgery did not in” rel=”nofollow”>indicate any significant variations in” rel=”nofollow”>in their results again” rel=”nofollow”>inst placebos (Lane & Lip, 2013). The beta-blockers reduced the number of heart attacks, atrial fibrillation, stroke and myocardial in” rel=”nofollow”>infarction. The significance of the study by Lane and Lip to this research is that it concludes that both types of medications have positive effects to post- cardiac surgery patients, although beta blockers have more effects than ACE in” rel=”nofollow”>inhibitors.
Taverny et al. assessed the effects of common antihypertensive pharmacotherapies in” rel=”nofollow”>in the prevention of sudden death among hypertensive in” rel=”nofollow”>individuals with cardiac disorders in” rel=”nofollow”>indicated that the drugs control hypertension in” rel=”nofollow”>in the patients (2016). Their selection criteria were randomized trials in” rel=”nofollow”>in which any of the antihypertensive drugs in” rel=”nofollow”>includin” rel=”nofollow”>ing ACE in” rel=”nofollow”>inhibitors and beta-blockers. Also, the patients who were subjected to the trials had to have a restin” rel=”nofollow”>ing systolic blood pressure of at least 140mmHG and/ or a restin” rel=”nofollow”>ing diastolic pressure of at least 90mmHg (Taverny et al., 2016). The comparisons in” rel=”nofollow”>in the trials were made again” rel=”nofollow”>inst placebos. From the results they obtain” rel=”nofollow”>ined, the researchers concluded that the use of all types of antihypertensive drugs prevented the development of sudden death among cardiac patients by reducin” rel=”nofollow”>ing the in” rel=”nofollow”>incidence of myocardial in” rel=”nofollow”>infarction. ACE in” rel=”nofollow”>inhibitors and beta blockers are common antihypertensive drugs which are used for the control and management of hypertension in” rel=”nofollow”>in cardiac patients, and the research in” rel=”nofollow”>indicates that they all reduce the susceptibility of one to develop fatal cardiac conditions.
Conclusion
The literature review above in” rel=”nofollow”>indicates that ACE in” rel=”nofollow”>inhibitor and beta blockin” rel=”nofollow”>ing medications play a significant role in” rel=”nofollow”>in reducin” rel=”nofollow”>ing hypertension in” rel=”nofollow”>in post-cardiac surgery patients. While ACE in” rel=”nofollow”>inhibitors work by preventin” rel=”nofollow”>ing the production of Angiotensin” rel=”nofollow”>in II hormone, which constricts the blood vessels and leads to an in” rel=”nofollow”>increase in” rel=”nofollow”>in blood pressure, the beta-blockers prevent the activation of receptor sites for catecholamin” rel=”nofollow”>ines in” rel=”nofollow”>in the nervous system. Also, both classes of drugs impede the development of fatal cardiac conditions such as heart arrhythmias and myocardial in” rel=”nofollow”>infarction, although beta blockers have more positive effects than ACE in” rel=”nofollow”>inhibitors. However, there is no significant difference in” rel=”nofollow”>in their effectiveness again” rel=”nofollow”>inst hypertension in” rel=”nofollow”>in post-cardiac surgery patients. Generalization to patients should be careful while considerin” rel=”nofollow”>ing the health care settin” rel=”nofollow”>ing.

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References
Akbar, S & Alorain” rel=”nofollow”>iny, M. (2014). The Current Status of Beta- Blockers’ use in” rel=”nofollow”>in the Management of Hypertension. Saudi Medical Journal. 35 (11): 1307- 1317. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4362137/
Blessberger, H., Kammler, J., Domanovits, H., Schlager, O., Wiesbauer, F & Stein” rel=”nofollow”>inwender, C. (2014). Perioperative Beta- Blockers for Preventin” rel=”nofollow”>ing Cardiac Surgery Related Mortality and Morbidity. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Retrieved from https://onlin” rel=”nofollow”>inelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD004476.pub2/full
Lane, D & Lip, G. (2013). Treatment of Hypertension in” rel=”nofollow”>in Peripheral Arterial Disorder. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Retrieved from https://onlin” rel=”nofollow”>inelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD003075.pub3/full
Muller, M., Schin” rel=”nofollow”>indler, E., Kwapisz, M., Klemm, S & Hempelmann, G. (2000). Effect of Intraoperative Angiotensin” rel=”nofollow”>in Convertin” rel=”nofollow”>ing Enzyme Inhibition on Hypertension after Coronary Artery Surgery. British Journal of Anesthesia. 84 (3): 396- 398. Retrieved from https://onlin” rel=”nofollow”>inelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clcentral/articles/710/CN-00277710/frame.html
Ong, H., Ong, L & Ho, J. (2013). ACE Inhibitors and Angiotensin” rel=”nofollow”>in Receptor Blockers in” rel=”nofollow”>in Patients at High Risk of Cardiovascular Events. International Scholarly Research Notices of Cardiology. Retrieved from https://www.hin” rel=”nofollow”>indawi.com/journals/isrn/2013/478597/
Taverny G, mimouni, Y., LeDigarcher, A., Chevalier, P., Thijs, L., Wright, J & Gueyffier, F. (2016). Antihypertensive Pharmacotherapy for Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death in” rel=”nofollow”>in Hypertensive Individuals. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Retrieved from https://onlin” rel=”nofollow”>inelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD011745.pub2/full