LEADERS AND LEADERSHIP

 

 

 

LEADERS AND LEADERSHIP

Modular Learnin” rel=”nofollow”>ing OutcomesUpon successful completion of this module, the student will be able to satisfy the followin” rel=”nofollow”>ing outcomes:• Case o Assess your own leadership experience and analyze leadership accordin” rel=”nofollow”>ing to environmental contin” rel=”nofollow”>ingencies.• SLP o Assess your own level of cultural awareness and prepare a personal development plan.• Discussion o Analyze challenges and opportunities in” rel=”nofollow”>in creatin” rel=”nofollow”>ing a department merger plan.Module OverviewAs managerial hopefuls transition from supervisor through mid-level to upper-level positions, their specific expertise in” rel=”nofollow”>in a subject area becomes less important and their ability to in” rel=”nofollow”>influence others and in” rel=”nofollow”>inspire them to put their effort toward organizational goals in” rel=”nofollow”>increases. Yet most people are promoted not due to their ability to guide and direct others, but because of their skill in” rel=”nofollow”>in a functional area. Thus, a need is created to learn leadership skills to fill this void.The Leadership ProblemWhat is the leadership problem? Google the word leadership and you will fin” rel=”nofollow”>ind a plethora of books, blogs, articles, and websites all claimin” rel=”nofollow”>ing to know the key to effective leadership. Some pundits claim the key is trust, others the ability to challenge, motivate or in” rel=”nofollow”>inspire. Some say the best leaders are good facilitators and coaches, other that the best leaders are strong directors. The truth is all of them—and all of them are wrong.What do we mean by this? Simply that good leaders can be all of these thin” rel=”nofollow”>ings, but not to all people at all times. How do we know which leadership activities are most effective with particular people in” rel=”nofollow”>in specific situations? This is the Leadership Problem.In this module, we will study the leadership problem and seek to develop the critical thin” rel=”nofollow”>inkin” rel=”nofollow”>ing that will allow us to determin” rel=”nofollow”>ine which leadership style or methods have the greatest chance of success with different types of followers and different types of circumstances. We will see how leadership is related to power and how different leadership practices elicit different kin” rel=”nofollow”>inds of reactions from followers.Privacy Policy | Contact
Module 3 – BackgroundLEADERS AND LEADERSHIPAll background materials (as well as materials referenced on the home page) are required unless designated as optional or general reference materials. People have wondered about what makes a great leader sin” rel=”nofollow”>ince the begin” rel=”nofollow”>innin” rel=”nofollow”>ing of recorded history – and undoubtedly long before. The formal study of leadership dates back to the 1950’s, and is probably one of the most researched topics in” rel=”nofollow”>in Organizational Behavior. Today, after decades of study, we believe that:• Leaders are made, not born, and leadership can be taught.• Leadership occurs in” rel=”nofollow”>in all kin” rel=”nofollow”>inds of organizations and at all levels.• To be a great leader, one does not have to be charismatic.• There is no one right way to lead that will fit all situations.In this module, we will review the major theories of leadership that persist to this day. Although some are more complex than others, each seems to have a nugget of truth and adds to our overall understandin” rel=”nofollow”>ing of how leadership works and what makes great leadership. The followin” rel=”nofollow”>ing chart summarizes the major approaches or models that we will cover.Leadership Model Prin” rel=”nofollow”>inciplesTrait Model Leaders have special in” rel=”nofollow”>innate qualities. Certain” rel=”nofollow”>in people are “natural leaders.”Behavioral Models Leaders are concerned primarily with task or relationships, though the best leaders are concerned with both.Contin” rel=”nofollow”>ingency Models Different leader behaviors are effective for different types of followers and situations.Influence (Power) Models Leadership consists of in” rel=”nofollow”>influencin” rel=”nofollow”>ing others.Transformational Models Leaders are visionaries who change organizations and people’s behavior.Let’s begin” rel=”nofollow”>in with a PowerPoin” rel=”nofollow”>int presentation that will provide some background on these different models:Eveland, J.D. (n.d.) Leadership. Trident University International.The exercise of leadership, by defin” rel=”nofollow”>inition, in” rel=”nofollow”>involves compellin” rel=”nofollow”>ing people to do somethin” rel=”nofollow”>ing they might not otherwise have done. The manner in” rel=”nofollow”>in which they carry out these tasks varies, however. The degree of motivation and enthusiasm with which a follower performs his or her work is related to the type of leadership that is used. Here are the most common reactions by followers:• Commitment is characterized by the in” rel=”nofollow”>internalization of a leader’s goal or request and the follower’s decision to carry it out effectively. Frequently, the follower will go beyond what the leader has asked or expects – in” rel=”nofollow”>in other words, goes the extra mile.• Compliance is an apathetic response where the follower does what the leader asks, but exerts no more than the required amount of effort.• Resistance is a reaction where the follower opposed the leader‘sdirection and avoids carryin” rel=”nofollow”>ing it out (passively through avoidance or aggressively through rebellion).Let’s take a look at power, which is closely tied to leadership. Review the sources of power in” rel=”nofollow”>in the followin” rel=”nofollow”>ing video presentation: https://youtu.be/eSb06mh7EHARetrieved April 2017 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eSb06mh7EHA.Now, consider reactions to leadership’s exercise of power (by type):Type Most Common ReactionReward ComplianceCoercive Compliance or resistanceLegitimate ComplianceReferent CommitmentExpert CommitmentThis chart would in” rel=”nofollow”>indicate that the most a leader can hope for if he relies on the power received from holdin” rel=”nofollow”>ing a position (legitimate, reward, coercive) is compliance with directives. If leaders rely too heavily on coercive power, they risk meetin” rel=”nofollow”>ing resistance. If, in” rel=”nofollow”>instead, a leader needs to have the follower’s commitment (the knowledge that a follower will comply with directives regardless of whether or not the follower is bein” rel=”nofollow”>ing monitored or not), then the leader must rely on personal sources of power – such as referent or expert power.While commitment is very often the most desired reaction, sometimes compliance is enough to accomplish the leader’s objectives. Resistance, however, is somethin” rel=”nofollow”>ing all leaders should want to avoid as it could render them totally in” rel=”nofollow”>ineffective.Contin” rel=”nofollow”>ingency ModelsThe Eveland PowerPoin” rel=”nofollow”>int presentation also covered contin” rel=”nofollow”>ingency models of leadership. Contin” rel=”nofollow”>ingency models are based on the idea that the most effective leadership style is one that matches the demands of the situation. There are three basic models of contin” rel=”nofollow”>ingency leadership that we will cover in” rel=”nofollow”>in this module. Each has a slightly different prescription as to the factors that a leader needs to consider when exercisin” rel=”nofollow”>ing the most successful leadership style.1. The Fiedler Model2. The Path-Goal Model and3. The Normative Decision ModelThe Fiedler ModelUnlike the behavioral theorists who came before him, Fiedler did not believe that there was one best style of leadership. He agreed that in” rel=”nofollow”>individuals tend to possess either a task-oriented or relationship-oriented leadership style, but that to know the appropriate style for a given circumstance, you also needed to understand the situation:Situational Factor CharacteristicsLeader-Member Relations Do the followers have trust and confidence in” rel=”nofollow”>in the leader?Task Structure Is the task structured or unstructured?Leader’s position power Does the leader have the discretion to reward or punish?Read the followin” rel=”nofollow”>ing article to learn how these factors combin” rel=”nofollow”>ine to in” rel=”nofollow”>indicate which leadership style would be most effective given specific situational constrain” rel=”nofollow”>ints, and criticisms of the model:Fiedler’s Contin” rel=”nofollow”>ingency Theory (2016). Leadership-central. Retrieved from http://www.leadership-central.com/fiedler%27s-contin” rel=”nofollow”>ingency-theory.html#axzz3OemkTtoMWhile Fiedler thought that different leadership styles worked better under different conditions, he did not thin” rel=”nofollow”>ink that people could change their preferred style. So the important task of management was to match the leader with the right style to the right situation. The next contin” rel=”nofollow”>ingency theory of leadership we will examin” rel=”nofollow”>ine does not hold that leadership style is static, and in” rel=”nofollow”>instead proffers the argument that leaders can change and adapt their style to fit the situation.Path Goal Model The path-goal model of leadership proposes four different leadership styles and considers two situational factors (the follower’s capabilities and motivation) to match the most effective leadership style with the characteristics of the situation as follows:Appropriate Leadership Style SituationDirective • Employee role ambiguity is high• Employees have low abilities• Employees have external locus of controlSupportive • Tasks are borin” rel=”nofollow”>ing and repetitive• Tasks are stressfulParticipative • Employee abilities are high• Decisions are relevant to employees• Employees have in” rel=”nofollow”>internal locus of controlAchievement-oriented • Employees have high abilities• Employees have high achievement motivationIn other words, a leader does not use the same approach with hourly employees with limited skills the same way she would lead employees who are highly educated and highly skilled. Read more about this approach to leadership:Martin” rel=”nofollow”>in, R. (2012) “PathGoal Theory of Leadership.” Encyclopedia of Group Processes & Intergroup Relations. Ed. John M. Levin” rel=”nofollow”>ine and Michael A. Hogg. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 2009. 636-37. SAGE Reference Onlin” rel=”nofollow”>ine . Web. 30 Jan. 2012. Retrieved April 2017 from https://studysites.uk.sagepub.com/northouse6e/study/materials/reference/reference7.2.pdfNormative Decision Model: Vroom-Yetton-Jago decision treeThe last contin” rel=”nofollow”>ingency model we will consider is the Normative Decision Model, so called because it gives leaders a tool to use to decide exactly which of five leadership styles is appropriate for a given circumstance to ensure that the highest quality alternative is selected and the followers have the greatest likelihood of acceptance of that alternative. By askin” rel=”nofollow”>ing a series of questions and followin” rel=”nofollow”>ing the answers through a decision tree, the leader can select the style that is most likely to yield the response she desires. The five leadership styles are:Decision style CharacteristicsA1: Autocratic Leader gathers in” rel=”nofollow”>information and decides alone.A2: Autocratic Leader gets in” rel=”nofollow”>information from followers but decides alone.C1: Consultative Leader shares problem with in” rel=”nofollow”>individual followers, asks for in” rel=”nofollow”>input, but decides alone.C2: Consultative Leader shares problem with group of follower, asks for in” rel=”nofollow”>input, but decides alone.G2: Group based Leader shares problem with group, seeks consensus on solution.Fin” rel=”nofollow”>ind out what the key questions are and see how the decision tree works by readin” rel=”nofollow”>ing the followin” rel=”nofollow”>ing article. Be sure to try out the in” rel=”nofollow”>interactive tool that allows you to try out the decision tree for yourself!Vroom-Yetton-Jago Decision-makin” rel=”nofollow”>ing Model of Leadership (2013). Leadership-central. Retrieved from http://www.leadership-central.com/Vroom-Yetton-Jago-decision-makin” rel=”nofollow”>ing-model-of-leadership.html#axzz3OjpF9lI8Transformational leadershipTransformational leaders are people who in” rel=”nofollow”>inspire followers to exert their greatest efforts toward achievin” rel=”nofollow”>ing a vision for the future of the organization. To do this, the transformational leader needs to clearly communicate his vision for the organization and this vision must be lin” rel=”nofollow”>inked to strong values that followers will fin” rel=”nofollow”>ind motivatin” rel=”nofollow”>ing. The transformational leader works hard to build trust with his followers – so that his “open area” of the JoHari Win” rel=”nofollow”>indow is maximized. (See Module 2 for an explanation of the JoHari Win” rel=”nofollow”>indow.)Although he does not use the term “transformational”, Leadership expert Simon Sin” rel=”nofollow”>inek is clearly describin” rel=”nofollow”>ing what constitutes this type of leadership in” rel=”nofollow”>in the followin” rel=”nofollow”>ing TED talk:TED (2010) Simon Sin” rel=”nofollow”>inek: How great leaders in” rel=”nofollow”>inspire action. Retrieved from https://www.ted.com/talks/simon_sin” rel=”nofollow”>inek_how_great_leaders_in” rel=”nofollow”>inspire_actionMuch of what is written about transformational leadership focuses on the role of top management – particularly CEO’s – as transformational. But what about the rest of us who lead people on a daily basis, but from the middle of the organization? Does the model of transformational leadership have anythin” rel=”nofollow”>ing to offer in” rel=”nofollow”>individuals who are not at the top of the leadership “food chain” rel=”nofollow”>in”?The followin” rel=”nofollow”>ing article does just that by makin” rel=”nofollow”>ing clear how managers at all levels of the organization can become more effective leaders by in” rel=”nofollow”>infusin” rel=”nofollow”>ing transformational prin” rel=”nofollow”>inciples in” rel=”nofollow”>into the meanin” rel=”nofollow”>ing of work. Drawin” rel=”nofollow”>ing on the Job Characteristics Model (remember this from module 1?), the authors show how “transformational leaders promote (i.e., shape) subordin” rel=”nofollow”>inates’ perceptions of work by in” rel=”nofollow”>influencin” rel=”nofollow”>ing their perceptions of key job characteristics.” (p. 354)Dean J., Cleavengera, D.J., and Munyonb, T.P. (2013). It’s how you frame it: Transformational leadership and the meanin” rel=”nofollow”>ing of work. Busin” rel=”nofollow”>iness Horizons 56(3), 351-360.You can fin” rel=”nofollow”>ind this article in” rel=”nofollow”>in the Trident University Library.Optional Readin” rel=”nofollow”>ingCenter for Creative Leadership Website. (2015) Retrieved from http://www.ccl.org/in” rel=”nofollow”>index.shtmlMcNamara, C. (2017) All about Leadership. In Free Management Library. Retrieved from http://managementhelp.org/leadership/Privacy Policy | Contact

 

 

DISCUSSIONS ASSIGNMENT
Week 1: Merger and Unit Integration IssuesAs a leader/manager, one circumstance you may encounter is the necessity to in” rel=”nofollow”>integrate or merge two organizational units. This can be a stressful period which, if not properly managed, can cause a good deal of tension and/or conflict, often leadin” rel=”nofollow”>ing to decreased organizational performance.Consider that senior management has dictated that your unit will merge with another manager’s unit over the next three months. You will be the leader of the newly merged group. The previous manager will remain” rel=”nofollow”>in on your staff. Senior management has asked you to submit a merger plan. (If you have previously been in” rel=”nofollow”>involved in” rel=”nofollow”>in an actual unit merger, please share the organizational dynamics you experienced as well as any lessons learned.)(Brin” rel=”nofollow”>ing in” rel=”nofollow”>in and cite at least one source of in” rel=”nofollow”>information from your background readin” rel=”nofollow”>ings for each of your weekly in” rel=”nofollow”>initial posts.)Week 1 Discussion Question:What are the key issues/challenges/opportunities you face, both short- and long-term?
Week 2: Merger and Unit Integration Issues Usin” rel=”nofollow”>ing the same scenario as Week 1 of this Discussion, answer the question in” rel=”nofollow”>in bold below:In describin” rel=”nofollow”>ing three key elements of your merger plan, explain” rel=”nofollow”>in the sources of power that will be available to you and upon which you will draw to help achieve a successful merger.

 

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