Differences between Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X?
1. The Supreme Court decision in Smith v. Allwright helped refranchise African-American voters in __________.a. Texas, Tennessee, and Floridab. Arkansas, Kentucky, and West Virginiac. Virginia, South Carolina, and North Carolinad. Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia
2. Which of the following cases involved a young woman who had been denied admission to a law school because she was African American?a. Sipuel v. Board of Regents of the University of Oklahomab. Gaines v. Canadac. Sweatt v. Painterd. Brown v. Board of Education
3. In the 1940s, the NAACP-LDEF took on segregation by concentrating on inequality in __________.a. graduate educationb. housingc. employment opportunitiesd. high schools
4. How did President Eisenhower react to the Brown decision?a. He supported it wholeheartedly and used all of his powers to enforce it.b. He fought the decision at every turn.c. He seemed unhappy with the ruling and refused to back it entirely.d. He asked the Supreme Court to reconsider its ruling.
5. In Brown v. Board of Education, Thurgood Marshall argued that __________. a. southern states had to do more to offer equal facilities to black childrenb. school segregation violated the First and Fourth Amendmentsc. the sin of slavery could only be washed clean through integrationd. segregation was, in its essence, unconstitutional
6. Brown II dealt with __________.a. voting rights and proceduresb. the actual process of desegregationc. segregation in private schoolsd. discrimination in hiring and wages
7. White Citizens’ Councils emerged in the __________ to fight against desegregation.a. late 1940sb. mid-1960sc. early 1960sd. mid-1950s
8. “The Southern Manifesto” was issued by __________.a. southern congressmenb. the state of Mississippic. the Ku Klux Kland. the city of Montgomery
9. Who played a key role in publicizing the facts about Emmett Till’s death?a. Martin Luther King, Jr.b. Emmett’s brotherc. Emmett’s motherd. President Eisenhower
10. Rosa Parks’s decision not to give up her seat on December 1, 1955, was __________.a. initially ignored by the NAACPb. a spontaneous decisionc. a felony under Alabama lawd. a long-planned event
11. The Montgomery Bus Boycott lasted ___________.a. six weeksb. three monthsc. more than a yeard. six months
12. What role did Bayard Rustin play in the Montgomery bus boycott?a. He raised money for the MIA in New York.b. He organized carpools and printed pamphlets for the MIA.c. He worked with the Eisenhower administration to gain support for the MIA.d. He served as the MIA’s lead attorney.
13. _______ used the sit-in to protest segregation during the 1940s.a. COREb. The NAACPc. The SNCCd. The Urban League
14. The __________ was led by young activists and college students.a. SCLCb. MIAc. SNCCd. NAACP
15. Executive Order 11063 sought to end discrimination in __________.a. public schoolsb. state governmentsc. the militaryd. federally supported housing
16. Which of the following best explains why the Albany Movement failed?a. Albany’s police chief effectively countered the strategy and tactics of civil rights activists.b. The civil rights groups in Albany were disorganized and often worked at cross purposes.c. The state government repeatedly intervened on the side of the city.d. The Ku Klux Klan moved in and intimidated the civil rights activists.
17. Fannie Lou Hamer fought for voting rights for African Americans in __________.a. Mississippib. Louisianac. Virginiad. North Carolina
18. The “C” in Project C stood for ____a. confrontationb. conquestc. childrend. civil rights
19. Why did the white business leaders of Birmingham agree to negotiate with civil rights leaders?a. They sympathized with the civil rights leaders’ demands.b. They were concerned about the escalating violence between police and protestors.c. They were ordered to do so by the national Democratic Party.d. They were ordered to do so by the governor of Alabama.
20. The March on Washington was also known as the march for “__________.”a. Jobs and Freedomb. Peace and Unityc. Justice and Equalityd. Brotherhood and Liberty
21. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 allowed the federal government to __________.a. take over state and local governmentsb. jail individuals accused of discriminationc. withhold funds from discriminatory programsd. offer financial support to civil rights organizations
22. Mississippi Freedom Summer focused on __________.a. discrimination in housingb. voter registrationc. discrimination in employmentd. school segregation
23. In the five years following passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, __________.a. very few new African-American voters were registered in the Southb. the number of African-American voters soaredc. lynching’s in the South increased dramaticallyd. African Americans were elected to statewide office across the South
24. Malcolm X was an advocate of ___a. absolute gender equality within the black communityb. nonviolent civil disobediencec. racial integration wherever and whenever possibled. solidarity among all black people around the world25. Malcolm X joined the Nation of Islam __________.a. while traveling in the Southb. while in prisonc. at the request of his fatherd. after he was attacked by a white mob
26. How did Malcolm X’s views change after his visit to Mecca in 1964?a. He renounced his former view that all white people were evil and racist.b. He began speaking for the use of violence and force to overcome racism.c. He began to insist that all black people move to Africa.d. He began to argue that the civil rights movement had been a mistake.
27. ________ is credited with popularizing the slogan “Black Power.”a. Stokely Carmichaelb. James Meredithc. Alex Haleyd. Malcolm X
28. According to Stokely Carmichael, what was the purpose of Black Power?a. to force government to meet the needs of black peopleb. to create an autonomous black nationc. to advance the cause of racial integrationd. to elect black people to public office
29. The Black Panther slogan was __a. “Africa Rising”b. “One Black Nation”c. “Power to the People”d. “Freedom Now”
30. What was the purpose of COINTELPRO?a. to gather information on civil rights groups like the NAACPb. to stabilize urban communitiesc. to undermine and disrupt black nationalist organizationsd. to help implement government social welfare programs
31. Angela Davis was most closely identified with her activism in which area?a. prisoners’ rightsb. affordable housingc. school desegregationd. voter registration
32. ________ created and led the Poor People’s Campaign.a. Martin Luther King, Jr.b. Stokely Carmichaelc. Huey P. Newtond. Lyndon Johnson
33. In 1967, Muhammad Ali sparked an enormous controversy when he _a. refused to be drafted into the militaryb. refused to box against a white opponentc. converted to Islamd. became a member of the Black Panthers
34. Which of the following was the ultimate goal of the Black Arts movement?a. the transcendence of raceb. racial integrationc. the creation of a black nationd. black liberation
35. During the 1970s, ___a. the relative economic status of most black workers improvedb. the gap between poor black people and poor white people shrankc. the black middle class grewd. the urban black population shrank