Skin disorders and burn patient



Acne, eczema, seborrheic dermatitis, skin cancer and psoriasis are the five most common skin disorders.
1. Acne
Acne is a skin disorder that causes pimples when the passageway that connects the skin’s pores to the oil glands becomes clogged.
Acne, which appears most often on the face, neck, shoulders, chest and back, can come in many forms. Whiteheads and blackheads are the most commonly known; nodular and cystic acne are more severe
because they form deep in the skin and can cause scars.
Eighty percent of Americans will have acne at some point in their lives, and 60 percent will continue to experience it into adulthood.
Factors like heredity can play a role in developing acne, but hormones are the most important factor.
“In both men and women, the reason it peaks in the teenage years is because growth hormone is released at a very high frequency,” “Production really spikes and valleys in the course of a day, and
this surging of the growth hormone is why acne is most severe in the teenage years.”
2. Eczema
Eczema is a “grab-bag term,” which comes from the Greek word for “boils over.” There are three common forms of eczema:
— Atopic dermatitis is the most common and is seen most often in children. One to three percent of adults compared to 10 to 20 percent of children have this long-term genetic disease, which causes
itchy rashes in the crux of the elbows and behind the knees.
— Allergic contact dermatitis begins to show in adulthood and is caused by environmental factors such as cosmetic agents, fragrances and the metals in jewelry.
— Nummular dermatitis looks like red and flaky coin-shaped patches of skin and is due to dry skin. This can be very itchy.
“In all cases, what you want to do is moisturize the skin, build up the skin barrier and avoid drying out the skin,”. “And then, usually, we use corticosteroids for these conditions.”
3. Seborrheic Dermatitis
Seborrheic dermatitis, which causes oily, waxy patches to develop on the scalp, is distinct from other forms of dermatitis.
It affects 5 percent of people. It can affect babies, typically in the first six months of their lives in the form of “cradle cap” — a flakey, dandruff-like condition on the scalp. After the
symptoms clear up, it rarely appears again until puberty.
4. Skin Cancer
Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in the United States.
According to the American Academy of Dermatology, one million people are diagnosed with skin cancer annually, and 1 in 5 Americans will develop skin cancer in their lifetime.
Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are the most common types of skin cancer. But 75 percent of skin cancer deaths are from melanoma, the third most common form.
Sun damage is on a spectrum with skin cancer because excessive exposure to ultraviolet light is a leading cause and requires physicians to be well-versed in treating it early.
“More often than not, a patient will come in, and the lesions that bring them into the office and what their chief complaint is one of these two things: sun damage or hyper-pigmentation,”
Genetics play more of a role in basal cell and melanoma than in squamous cell, which is due to sun exposure.
5. Psoriasis
Psoriasis (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. is a chronic and disfiguring genetic disease. It is a buildup of excess skin tissue that looks red and thick and is covered with
silvery scales. It first appears on the elbows and knees, but can spread to other parts of the limbs and even the trunk. Certain forms affect particular areas like the hands, scalp or the joints.
“Patients with psoriasis have very poor quality of life because it’s very obvious and it makes the patient extraordinarily self-conscious.”
Discussion Question: topic 10a: Pick one of the above 5 skin disorders, research and discuss.

Topic #10b: Burn Patient
Manuela, an 8-year-old Hispanic female, is in transport by an ambulance to the emergency room (ER) after being rescued from her burning house. She was asleep at night when a spark from a cigarette
started a fire, leaving her trapped in her bedroom. By the time the fire rescue squad arrived and got her out, she had suffered severe 2ndand 3rd degree burn injuries.
As the ER nurse who is the first to meet Manuela in the emergency room and who is interested in the prevention of infection, and who has lots of experience with patients going into shock, and who
specializes in burns, and who has years of experience helping in pain management of children, please discuss your answers as to why the patient would be subject to the following and what would your
treatment be:
Discussion Question Case Study #10b: Please discuss why the patient would be subject to:
1. Infection
2. Shock.
3. Pain.
4. Explain what could be done to treat the Burns and how it would alleviate Infection, shock and pain


Sample Solution




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