instructional leadership, active learning and 4c of 21st century skills in higher education

instructional leadership, active learning and 4c of 21st century skills in higher education

Order Description


Chapter 2 (Literature Review)

2.1 Instructional Leadership (2 pages)
2.1.1 Conceptions of Instructional Leadership
(1) Relate from the significance/ role of teachers as instructional leaders to lecturers in higher education as instructional leaders. (change the context from
teachers to lecturers)

2.2 4C’s of 21st century skills (4 pages)
2.2.1 Conceptions of 21st century skills
4c’s (creative thinking, critical thinking, collaboration, communication) skills that are vital for students in higher education
role of students in the 21st century/ 21st century learner


2.3 Theoretical framework of the study (4 pages)
* Social constructivism Zone of proximal development, Vygotsky (focus on learners)
* instructional leadership model (focus on lecturers)
* The 5E learning cycle, Bybee (1992) – Engagement, exploration, evaluation, explanation, elaboration how these should be integrated in teaching in learning in class.
these help students to learn on their own and thus acquire the necessary skills.


2.4 Conceptual Framework of the study (6 pages)
2 IVs
2.4.1 IV(1): Instructional leadership
Constructs of Instructional Leadership
– Define the course outcomes
(such as lecturer as instructional leader- develop/ plans/ use course outcome for classroom activities)
– Manage the instructional activities
(such as ensure students are engaged in lessons, developing their thinking skills, be active learners etc)
– Promote 21st Century Classroom
(such as help students to be more independent, opportunities etc)

IV(2) Active learning –No need

2.4.2 DV : 4C’s of 21st Century
Constructs of 4C’s
– Creative Thinking
– Critical Thinking
– Collaboration
– Communication

2.5 Relationships of instructional leadership among lecturers, active learning among students and 4c’s of 21st century skills in higher education (2 pages)

** use more recent articles/ journals in the writing. the references shouldn’t be too outdated. Request to get the links/ journals quoted and used in the writing.


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