Nineteenth-Century Europe: Between Revolution and War
Choose ONE of the questions below and write a 2,000 word essay addressing it
1. Population and Society
What were the causes of the “demographic revolution” in European society between 1750 and 1850?
Liberals, radicals and conservatives all adopted themes in the cultural movement of Romanticism for their own ideological purposes. Explain how Romanticism could exert such a wide appeal, and how it was utilised in the service of nineteenth-century nationalist movements.
3. Social Change in Industrialised Britain
What does EITHER Elizabeth Gaskell’s novel Mary Barton OR her novel North and South say about the effects of industrialization in nineteenth-century Britain? Does she have a political message in the novel?
What were the major historical changes in Scandinavia (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Iceland) in the period from 1780 to 1850, and how did the history of this region differ from that of such countries as Britain, France and Germany during this period?
8. The Crowd
Was the nineteenth-century European crowd “a mad beast”, as one Italian observer once described it, or was the reality of popular rebellion more complex than this? If so, how?
Was nationalism in the latter half of the nineteenth century the ideology of a dominant middle class, the weapon of the marginalised, or the ideology of an intellectual elite? Discuss in terms of any European state or political movement, and draw on relevant primary sources.
11. The “New Woman”
Who was the “new woman” of the late 1800s? How did her behaviour and attitudes challenge accepted norms? How successful was she in challenging society? In answering this question, you may wish to focus on particular individuals or countries. Try to use some primary sources.