Responses to students’ discussion postings

The below are four students’ discussions postings. You need to offer to their individual postings substantive responses as a student not an instructor.

Student #1
Our health initiative focused on Healthy Aging strategies to promote a healthier population. In order to achieve long-term success and ensure our initiative is sustainable, our target population was primarily adult individuals between 20 and 50 years old. The six key components associated with successful public health program implementation are: innovation, a rigorously established technical package, management, partnerships, communication and political commitment (Frieden, 2014). Successful marketing strategies are essential for all components, and an effective marketing campaign is a critical component of a sustainable public health initiative.
The success or failure of marketing strategies if often dependent upon accurate assessment of the external environment surrounding the initiative’s target audience (Healey & Zimmerman, 2010). To promote healthy aging strategies we focused on a combined approach of promotion nutrition, emotional wellness, preventative medicine and health education by identifying a pneumonic N.E.P.E. to be used as part of our marketing strategy. Our target market age group is technologically savvy, heavily reliant on technology, and often connected via social media. The primary marketing strategy would be to follow the concept of social marketing. Healey and Zimmerman described how the social marketing is useful in developing a promotional effort designed to get individuals to change high-risk health behaviors (2010). Our social marketing strategies include use of Facebook, Instagram and Twitter to promote awareness and education of the N.E.P.E. method. In addition to social media the initiative would develop a smartphone applications for multiple platforms to include basic educational materials, links to resources and a calendar of events for our families to attend. Our carefully developed technological marketing strategies, will also be utilized to provide feedback of what is working for the initiative and what is not. This allows appropriate feedback and communication to stakeholders serving as initiative management, and encourages timely adjustments to marketing strategies. By forming partnerships with community stakeholders where the initiative is launched, the N.E.P.E. program would be able to gain additional exposure to the target population by participating in health fairs, educational seminars at schools/colleges, senior activities, and family friendly events for all ages.
Advertising and marketing strategies which discourage individuals from utilizing specific products are counter-marketing strategies. Counter-marketing strategies which would benefit the N.E.P.E. method include strategies against tobacco use, sugar-filled drinks and snacks (ie. donuts, soda), and alcohol consumption. One of the most successful counter-marketing campaigns globally is the tobacco cessation campaign (Bhasin, 2017).

Bhasin, H. (2017, December). Counter marketing – a demarketing tactic. Retrieved from:
Frieden, T. R. (2014, January). Six components necessary for effective public health program implementation. American Journal of Public Health, 104(1), 17-22. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301608
Healey, B. J., & Zimmerman, R. S. (2010). Health promotion program marketing techniques. In B.J. Healey & R. S. Zimmerman (Eds.), The new world of health promotion. New program development, implementation and evaluation. (pp. 73-86). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Student #2
Marketing and counter-marketing are important components of a health promotion initiative. While we recognize marketing as measures taken to promote products or activities to a target population, counter-marketing is a model that influences attitudes and beliefs against existing marketing campaigns that promote harmful products or behaviors (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [USDHHS], 2003).
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suggests seven qualities of a counter-marketing program, including being: long-term, comprehensive, integrated into other messages, culturally competent, strategic, evaluated, and adequately funded (2003). Counter-marketing measures are used most often by the CDC in activities that target tobacco cessation, by running advertisements that counter the messages produced by large tobacco companies.
For our initiative, we are using an ecological approach to health promotion activities which asserts that a combination of factors including interpersonal, intrapersonal, community, policy, and organizations will impact an individual’s health outcomes (Wendel, Garney, & McLeroy, 2017). Since an ecological approach assumes many variables occurring at the same time, our initiative will leverage the scope of social media to reach the target populations. An emphasis will be placed on increasing communication primarily between parents and their children, through the use of social media.
For counter-marketing efforts, this would prove much more difficult as the issues leading to childhood obesity are often ingrained in to our society. The excessive time children spend playing video games leads to a sedentary lifestyle, but a counter-marketing initiative should focus on responsible ‘screen-time’ usage and encourage parents to limit the time children spend playing video games. Fast food industries entice children to crave children’s meals as they include toys or games for children, which increases the desire for consumption. Counter-marketing measures that address the responsible consumption of fast food, such as limiting the number of such meals per week, should be targeted at both children and parents enabling for an open dialogue between the two groups. Lastly, as sugar sweetened beverages are the primary driver of child obesity, a counter-marketing campaign aimed at the responsible consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is the most important component.
Combining these counter-marketing measures to their appropriate target audience will enable the marketing attempts of the health promotion initiative to reach a greater audience. Rather than simply telling children and parents to avoid the unhealthy behaviors, appropriate consumption limits can be communicated through the counter-marketing activities.

Student #3
Organization management as a field can benefit from evidence-based practice. However, evidence-based management (EBMgt) is yet to be fully accepted in the field. A gap still exists between academic and practitioners in organization management. Business schools historically tend to focus their curriculum to meet the needs of the students and not incorporating EBMgt in their teaching nor teach students how to read academic articles (Lim, Jia Qing, & Eyring, 2014). Although management practitioners appreciate management theory and research, most of them find it challenging to connect theory to practice (Bezzina, Cassar, Trachz-Krupa, Przytula, & Tipuric, 2017). Morrell and Learmonth (2015) argued that EBMgt can lead to narrowness because not all organizational problems are amenable to evidence-based management.
Other challenge to integrate EBMgt into practice is the trustworthiness of cumulative scientific literature (Kepes, Bennett, & McDaniel, 2014). Scientific cumulative literature is relatively abundant in the natural and medical sciences because publishing reward system encourages replication of studies. According to Kepes, Bennett, and McDaniel (2014), the reward system in management sciences discourages replication of studies. The lack of replication of studies in management calls into the question the trustworthiness of the available scientific literature. Focusing on increasing reproducibility and replication of primary studies, changing the editorial review process, and emphasizing the production of practical and actionable knowledge are some of the ways to increase the trustworthiness of management literature (Kepes, Bennett, McDaniel, 2014).
All areas of organization management can benefit from EBMgt. There has been a significant increase in interest in EBMgt over the last decade (Lim, Jia Qing, & Eyring, 2014). If adoption of EBMgt is to be judged by the number of available research journals, it can be said that human resources management (HRM) is at the forefront. For example, evidence-based hiring and selection can assist organizations in building and maintaining diversity. A simple algorithm or equation in evaluating applicants outperformed human decisions by 25% because between 85% to 95% of hiring managers rely on some level of intuition in making hiring decisions (Kuncel, Ones, & Klieger, 2014). Some health care human resources managers who have seen improved outcomes from evidence-based practices are beginning to adopt evidence-based hiring (Warren, n.d). Guidelines for critically appraised topic in management and organizations (the equivalent of clinical practice guidelines) from the Center for Evidence-Based Management is attached to this post.

Student #4
I feel that athletic training would most benefit from evidence-based practice in the improved ability to return athletes to play quickly and safely. Athletic training is a unique field within medicine in that so we are trying to find a way to get injured athletes playing as soon as safely possible. The largest struggle we would Face would be pushback from athletes and coaches in regards to traditional methods of dealing with injuries. This pushback would be nullified once we were able to show evidence-based practice with more effective means of returning athletes to play.

Athletic training has been slow to adopt evidence-based practice and this is despite athletic trainers recognizing the value of evidence-based practice (Keeley, Walker, Hankemeier, Martin, & Cappaert, 2016). The National Athletic Trainers Association has made it a point in recent years to really push evidence-based practice amongst its membership. They often put out position statements summarizing the literature on a given topic so that their membership can implement it into their day-to-day practice. Hopefully the work of our national organization will bring evidence-based practice more into the daily practice of athletic trainers. The attached document is the NATA’s position statement on ACL preventative exercise and how they can reduce ACL injury in athletes (Padua et al., 2018).

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