While fishing on a river one spring morning, Robert
Donkin slipped through the underbrush that lined the river’s
banks. Nearing the shore, he saw a large canvas bag
floating in the water, held by foliage that leaned over the
river. Upon closer inspection, Mr. Donkin observed what
he believed to be hair floating through the bag’s opening.
Marking the spot of his discovery, the fisherman fetched
Preliminary investigation at the scene revealed a
body in the bag. Unfortunately, it was impossible to identify
the corpse’s sex, age, or race immediately. Forensics
was assigned to identify the victim and estimate the cause
and time of death. While waiting for the forensics analysis,
you, the detective in charge, have gathered the information
shown in the tables concerning victim–offender relationships
from recent reports from the FBI.
Using the information contained in the tables, you
develop a preliminary profile of the victim and offender
by determining the likelihood that the:
1. Offender is at least 18.
2. Offender is white.
3. Offender is male.
4. Victim is a white female.
5. Victim is either white or female.
6. Victim and offender are from the same age category.
7. Victim and offender are from different age categories.
8. Victim and offender are of the same race.
9. Victim and offender are of different races.
10. Victim and offender are of the same sex.
11. Victim and offender are of different sexes.
12. Without knowing the contents of the forensic team’s
report, what is your best prediction of the age, race,
and sex of the victim? Explain your reasoning.
13. What is your best prediction as to the age, race, and
sex of the offender? Explain your reasoning.
Soon after you finished this analysis, the preliminary
forensics report was delivered. Although no identification
had been made, the autopsy suggested that the cause of
death was blunt-force trauma and the body had been in the
water at least 2 weeks. The victim was a white female with
blonde hair, estimated as being in her mid-thirties, showed
no signs of having had children, and was wearing no jewelry.
Age of Offender
Age of Victim Less Than 18 At Least 18 Unknown
Less than 18 124 619 39
At least 18 290 5628 480
Unknown 4 80 21
Sex of Offender
Sex of Victim Male Female Unknown
Male 4710 490 89
Female 1735 150 24
Unknown 50 11 26
Race of Offender
Race of Victim White Black Other Unknown
White 3026 573 53 57
Black 208 3034 12 49
Other 54 28 97 7
Unknown 30 27 4 26
Race of Offender
Sex of Victim White Black Other Unknown
Male 2162 2935 103 89
Female 1126 700 59 24
Unknown 30 27 4 26
Sex of Offender
Race of Victim Male Female Unknown
White 3322 330 57
Black 2964 290 49
Other 159 20 7
Unknown 50 11 26
Race of Victim Male Female Unknown
White 5067 1883 6
Black 6294 1126 1
Other 301 105 0
Unknown 131 42 34
Source: Uniform Crime Reports: Crime in the United States
Case Study The Case of the Body in the Bag
M05B_SULL8306_05_AIE_CS_p01-02.indd 1 04/10/16 3:36 PM
Based on this new information, you develop a new
offender profile by determining the likelihood that the:
14. Offender is at least 18.
15. Offender is white.
16. Offender is male.
17. Victim and offender are from the same age category.
18. Victim and offender are from different age categories.
19. Victim and offender are of the same race.
20. Victim and offender are of different races.
21. Victim and offender are of the same sex.
22. Victim and offender are of different sexes.
23. What is your best prediction of the age, race, and sex
of the offender? Explain your reasoning.
24. Did your answers to the offender questions change
once you knew the age, race, and sex of the victim?
Suppose that 45% of murder victims were known to
be related to or acquainted with the offender, that 15%
were murdered by an unrelated stranger, and that for 40%
of victims relationship to their killer is unknown. Based
on all the information available, complete your offender
profile for this case.
Catherine II of Russia Catherine II of Russia who is generally alluded as Catherine the Great was the Russian Empress from 1762 until her demise in 1796. Catherine’s genuine names were “Yekaterina II Velikaya”. She was in the class of the “Edified autocrats” who were rulers impacted by the illuminated rules that grasped religious resistance, the right to speak freely, press and property. Catherine was conceived as Sophie Augusta Fredirica to her dad Christian August., the Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst and her mom Johanna Elisabeth of Holstein Gottorp. She in this way was from a honorable family. She got her training from a French tutor and included different coaches. Catherine’s folks were faithful Lutherans. In 1745 she was to wedded to Tsar Peter of Holstein Gottorp turning into the Princess. In light of her desire to get hitched and turn into a princess, she relinquished her dad’s religion and rather changed over to Orthodox Church. The famous marriage likewise constrained her to learn French, which she did with such a great amount of push to a degree that she got an extreme pneumonia assault, in view of strolling shoeless in her room rehashing the Russian lessons. Her and her better half Peter settled in the Palace of Oranienbaum. Sadly her significant other was youthful and feeble and ended up unfaithful to her. This in the end prompted the separation of their marriage. Catherine read generally on and got to know numerous capable political gatherings that contradicted her better half. Ruler Elizabeth passed on 1762 and Peter succeeded her to wind up Peter III of Russia. This influenced them to move to the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg. Naturally Catherine turned into the Empress. By then they had a child named Paul who was the beneficiary obvious if there should arise an occurrence of the father’s demise. In July of that year, there was a bloodless overthrow where Peter was deposed by the Leib Guard who were the military individual watchmen of the Emperor of Russia. The position of royalty was handed down to Catherine; she reigned till she kicked the bucket in 1796. Following a half year as a Prince and three days after demeanor, Peter III passed on at Ropsha. Catherine the considerable was extremely keen, persevering and had an exceptionally solid will. Her desire to end up the Empress of Russia saw her strike pointedly at the individuals who appeared to attempt and supplant her with the legitimate beneficiary of the position of authority, Paul her oldest child. In her rule Catherine widened Russian Empires’ guests both toward the south and the north retaining new Russia, Crimea, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus and Courland. Catherine was in the end ready to extend the Russian region to 518,000 kilometer squared. This was not a simple assignment remembering that the development was to the detriment of the Ottoman Empire and the Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth. She could accomplish this through an exceptionally canny statesman named Nikita Panin. In her underlying years of her rule, Catherine coordinated the majority of her endeavors towards making her situation in the position of authority more steady. This was to empower her have a broadened time of peace with the end goal for her to be powerful in other residential issues and outside undertakings. She comprehended the substance of a mindful outside strategy, which Panin did for her benefit. Panin dropped out with her after his intends to counter the energy of the Bourbon and Habsburg who had framed a class fizzled. It was not until the point when 1764 that she felt secure and sufficiently stable to begin taking a shot at reorganization towards enhancing social conditions in Russia. For such sweeping transformation Catherine used the thoughts of the edification. It was through such thoughts that she attempted to change Russia’s old lawful framework that was wasteful in light of the fact that it depended on the code of laws that dated from 1649. Towards this end she thought of a proposition she called “The guidelines” which was coursed all through Europe and ended up being a sensation. This is on account of it accommodated an exceptionally propelled level of lawful framework. The lawful framework was to be revered on the standards of equivalent assurance and anticipation of criminal acts. This was instead of the past strategy for allotting unforgiving discipline. In 1767 Catherine shaped an administrative commission to amend the old laws utilizing “The guideline” as the premise. The commission fizzled the set reason prompting the suspension of the survey. After Panin dropped out with Catherine in 1781, she supplanted him with Alexander Bezborodko who was a Ukrainian conceived councilor. In view of her thoughts from the Enlightment, Catherine authorized the Court betskoy whose sole reason for existing was to attract up plans to guarantee the arrangement of training for all young men and young ladies all through Russia. The sort of instruction she pushed for was the European style. Because of her endeavors schools and colleges were set up all through Russia. This prompted the establishment, out of the blue of uncommon young ladies’ schools in Russia. This additionally prompted the foundation of a medicinal school whose sole intention was to give satisfactory social insurance to every one of the natives. One great case is the Smolny Institute for young ladies, which was established in St. Petersburg. Catherine once in a while utilized brutality to solidify control and fortify her grasp on Russia. In any case, she depended on different strategies that generally demonstrated exceptionally powerful. For instance amid her opportunity the congregation had turned out to be very capable, to debilitate it she grabbed the congregation’s riches and after that utilized the ministry as state representatives. Outside issues requested quite a bit of her consideration between 1768 and1774. Catherine made Russia as the most capable realm amid this time. This came to fruition after the primary Russo-Turkish war against the Ottoman Empire. This war incorporated the Battle of Chesma (1770) and the skirmish of Kagul (1770). This war started after Catherine sent Russian troops to help her previous sweetheart Stanislaw Poniatowski, who she needed to smother a revolt that had come to fruition in light of Russia’s impact in Poland. The upheaval got bolster from Turkey and Austria. In any case, following two years protracted transactions with Turkey prompted truce. Catherine was extremely convincing which proved to be useful as of now. This empowered Russia pick up an a dependable balance on the Black Sea. Procurement of the privilege to the Black Sea was a vital turning point. This was on account of Russian trader ships gained the privilege of ocean whereby they could sail and going through the Dardanelles which was an essential European conduit. Additionally from the transactions the immense steppes of current South Ukraine were joined in the Russia Empire. In 1783 Catherine, in her mission for extension attached the Crimea, this prompted the second Russo-Turkish war (1787-1792) where the Ottoman Empire sort to recover the grounds it had lost to Russia amid the principal Russo Turkish war (1768-1774). The Ottoman troops lost pitiably which prompted the marking of the Treaty of Jassy. The settlement prompted the finish of the Second war and prompted the affirmation of Russia’s strength operating at a profit Sea. This was on the grounds that from this settlement Russia’s claim to the Crimea was legitimatized. In 1773 in the Volga River Basin a laborer revolt drove by Cossack began however was squashed by the Imperial powers when Cossack was caught in 1774, this was the main time that peace was acknowledged for quite a while which empowered Catherine focus on local undertakings, particularly issues that concerned the working of the legislature. It was amid this time the instruction guidelines were raised. Catherine assumed an essential part in molding the part of Russia in the field of discretion. In the European remote issues, Russia under Catherine assumed an exceptionally instrumental part in interceding on debate that occasionally prompted war. She intervened in the War of the Bavarian progression (1778-1779), amongst Prussia and Austria. It was through Catherine likewise that Russia saw the parceling of Poland, where all the ward an area with Prussia and Austria were separated>