Case study 1: Alex
Organisation type: Youth support service
Alex is 16 years old and left home 8 months ago. Since leaving home Alex has stayed with various friends and tried living with his grandmother (Thelma). He has spent time on the streets, and is no longer attending school. A friend told him about the youth support service as a place for food and to charge his phone. After visiting several times for emergency assistance, Alex has been referred for support and case management services. At this time he has no accommodation and is not working or attending school. He mentions his mother (Justine) and stepfather (Michael) live in a town close by.
His biological father lives in Thailand and he has not had contact with him since he was 3 years old. Alex has an older sister, Verity (age 21) who attends university interstate. Alex has told the youth service the reason he does not return home is because he does not get along with his stepfather, and has had many arguments with his mother about his use of marijuana at home and at school. He used to see the school counsellor when he attended school but had never told his mother about this. Alex has recently received a text from Justine saying she would like to see him and work things out. Alex is not sure what to do.
Case study 2: Mena & Iqbal
Organisation type: Refugee & Migrant Support Service
Iqbal & his wife Mena are a couple with two children (ages 10, 8). The family are from Afghanistan and arrived in Australia 5 years ago as part of the Humanitarian and Refugee program. Iqbal’s brother had been politically active in Afganistan and after he disappeared, local authorities began to target Iqbal and other extended family members. After a long and arduous journey the family travelled to a refugee camp in Pakistan before being accepted to come to Australia.
After receiving some support when they first arrived, the children attend school and Iqbal found work as a mechanic. However some months ago he witnessed a violent crime at the business next door. He was involved in providing a witness statement to the police, however since then he has not been able to return to work and lost his job. He is increasingly spending time at home and does not allow visitors. Mena’s English is limited and she does not have employment. They have received a letter from their landlord and Mena is not sure what has been happening
with their rent payments.
Case study 3: Marion & Dave
Organisation type: Family support service
Marion and Dave are aged in their 60s and have the full time care of their 5 year old grandson, Sean. Their daughter, Penny has been unable to look after Sean due to a violent relationship and extended periods of drug use leading to the involvement of Child Protection services. No formal orders are currently in place and Penny occasionally visits Sean. There have been some times in the past when Penny has visited when she is under the influence of drugs or made threats and they have needed to call the police. During her most recent visit she indicated she wanted Sean to live with her, however Marion is not aware if Penny has left her partner.
The couple had moved to a quiet coastal area 3 years ago when Dave retired. Six months ago the family’s house was damaged in a once in 100 year flood event that has impacted on the whole area. The recovery process is still underway and repairs are yet to be made to their house. It was not insured. Dave has just been diagnosed with early onset dementia.
Case study 4: Jeanie, Tom & children Stephen & Mary
Organisation type: Government child protection agency (remote service team)
Jeanie (aged 28) and Tom (aged 32) are Aboriginal and live in a remote community during the wet season and an outstation during the dry season. A notification from the local health clinic within the remote community has been received, advising Stephen and Mary will be air lifted to Hospital due to weight loss (each averaging 200 grams per week). Jeanie is pregnant and is also considered to be severely malnourished so will also be flying in with the children for treatment. Within the notification, information suggests the application of the World Health Organisation classification for malnourishment indicates both children are within the ‘severe’ category and this is unusual for children of this age.
The notifier has stated they have continued to experience difficulties in following-up health issues for the children because family spends large amounts of time at their Outstation and there is no service outreach to this location. Stephen and Mary have had two prior hospitalisations for failure to thrive and each time their weight had increased on their return to community however contact is lost when family moves to the outstation. Jeanie has disclosed that there is often little to no food available at the Outstation as it runs out quickly and her
nutritional needs take low priority in the family. Tom has never attended the health service with Jeanie or the children. When the Centre has used a local interpreter to discuss family issues, Jeanie is even less forthcoming with details of her family life however a staff member at the health centre has told the notifier that she saw Tom driving around the community recently in a new 4-
Choose 1 case study to base your essay/case study analysis on.
In your essay you will analyse the case study and critically evaluate the theoretical approach and intervention/s that you would use as a practitioner working with this scenario
I will examine some imperative techniques which empower learning. Every single individual adapts any sort of conduct amid their life expectancy. There is no individual on earth who does not experience the way toward learning. There are different learning techniques through which we get convictions, methodologies and aptitudes (Skinner, 1971, refered to in Ryckman,2013, p. 361) Here we might talk about the standards of learning and their uses in day by day life. I might want to likewise exhibit how conduct adjustment contrasts and subjective procedures of learning. Learning What we mean when we say “learning”, we ordinarily signify “thinking utilizing the cerebrum”. These ideas of learning are the focal viewpoint in the Cognitive Learning Theory (CLT). Mental procedures can be clarified, as they are inclined by both inside and outside variables, which bit by bit realize learning. Intellectual Learning Theory proposes that the distinctive methods with respect to learning can be portrayed by analyzing the psychological procedures first. It recommends that with genuine subjective procedures, learning is less difficult and new material can be put in the memory for quite a while. In any case, inadequate intellectual procedures influence learning complexities which can be found in a man. Social Cognitive Theory (SLT) There are three factors in social subjective hypothesis, which are interconnected with each other, for figuring out how to happen, which comprise of: Individual variables Environmental elements Behavior factors A person’s ecological connection, convictions, thoughts and mental abilities are impacted by outside variables, for example, a minding or wanton parent, aggravating or sound condition or an exceptionally hot or muggy atmosphere. The psychological procedure in a man is influenced by his conduct, and natural association, which can likewise adjust the way he considers. One’s conduct can exasperate and change the earth in which he or she lives in. Fundamental ideas of social learning are: Observational Learning Is a type of gaining from other individuals, by methods for watching their conduct in a powerful path keeping in mind the end goal to pick up information and change conduct. Proliferation Is the technique wherein there is an objective to effectively raise the rehashing of a conduct by methods for changing the earth to a more secure and more agreeable on , inside reachable proximate, and to urge him to recollect the new data and conduct learned and to practice them. Self-viability Is the way a man utilizes the recently learnt information or conduct which he has learnt. Passionate adapting is a decent adapting gadgets utilized against requesting situations and adverse individual appearances can prompt operational adapting, particularly in grown-ups Self – administrative ability is the capacity to controller the conduct even inside a negative situation. Established and operant molding are two indispensable recognitions huge to behavioral brain science. While both bring about taking in, the methodology is very unique. To see how every one of these conduct adjustment strategies can be utilized, it is likewise imperative to see how great molding and operant molding contrast from each other. Great Conditioning Was produced by the Russian researcher Ivan Pavlov, great molding is the main kind of learning wherein a living being reacts to an ecological jolt. Pavlov (1927) watched that in exemplary molding, the jolt (S) triggers the reaction (R) of a life form. Inside the introduction of the life form to the jolt, reflex(Hermans et.al., 2006, refered to in Weiten, 2014, p. 232). The unconditioned jolt (US) is the boost which prompts a discernible reaction without preparing. The unconditioned reaction (UR) is the reaction achieved by the unconditioned jolt. It is a programmed and ordinary conduct. The molded jolt (CR) is a boost that is unique and has no significance to the subject. Through learning it is matched with the unconditioned boost (US) and achieves the molded reaction. The adapted reaction (CR) is the conduct caused by the condition jolt because of the (CS). It is typically expectation of the (US). General Observation My sibling was in matric and my younger sibling was two years of age when I watched my sibling’s conduct. He would regularly get exceptionally disappointed with my younger sibling when he attempted to contemplate (US) with the goal for him to consider he use to give her a chocolate (UR) and she would grin and abandon him to think about. The chocolate is an encouraging feedback. Presently a half year later he has finished his matric and when she goes into his room she expects chocolate (CR). Since my sibling don’t give her chocolate, when she goes into his room she starts to cry, and mother would get irate at my sibling for making her cry. Mother don’t understand that my sibling has made a (CR) in my younger sibling conduct, since mother does not enable her to eat chocolate. Operant Conditioning known as Instrumental Conditioning: Was built up by B.F.Skinner . However Skinner was additionally extraordinarily impacted by crafted by Ivan Pavlov on the molding reflux. (Skinner, 1970, refered to in Ryckman, 2013, p. 360). Operant molding tries to repudiate the conviction that inward contemplations and simple motivations which achieves learning in a conduct. Skinner suspected that exclusive outside reasons for conduct must be viewed as (Skinner, 1953, p. 65)) The expression “operant” was utilized by Skinner keeping in mind the end goal to give us a decent recommendation of his hypothesis and how he utilized it: (Skinner, 1953, refered to in Ryckman, 2013, p. 365). Support: Is a strategy of expanding the recurrence rate of a conduct by methods for granting a jolt not long after the show of the conduct. The occasion that fortifies the likelihood of the conduct to repeat is known as a reinforcer. As indicated by Skinner, support can take two structures, which are called positive and negative fortification (Skinner, 1953, refered to in Ryckman, 2013, p. 367). Uplifting feedback: When my mother needed me to do the dishes, she would state to me “on the off chance that you do the dishes for me, for the week than I will take you out shopping on Saturday”. Normally we would spend the day shopping and she would ruin me, however in the long run without her approaching me to do the dishes for her. I understood that she was drained after work and the minimum I could do was help her with the dishes. Negative support happens when an answer is fortified in light of the fact that it is trailed by the disposal of an antagonistic boost. Case cleaning the house to dispose of the chaos or wearing a seat strap whist heading to keep an irritating sound (Skinner, 1953, refered to in Ryckman, 2013, p. 367). Negative Reinforcement: I abhorred the way that I expected to drive with my seat strap on, and I found that the irritating commotion of the safety belt would not stop until the point that I locked in which is an aversive jolt since it urge me to attach my safety belt. Until the point when I affix the safety belt, the irritating sound held on I couldn’t dispose of the aversive boosts. Presently days when I get into the auto, the main thing I do is put my seat strap on. In both positive and negative fortification, conduct is expanded, however negative support assumes a key part in both circumventing learning and evasion learning (Skinner, 1953, refered to in Ryckman, 2013, p. 367). In evade taking in, a being get a reaction that abatement or finishes some aversive incitement case: my younger sibling wearing her shoes previously going outside to play, this prompts: Shirking learning in which an element gets a reaction that prevents some aversive incitement from happening illustration putting on shoes before you get an alkali. Evasion learning is a decent method to perceive how established molding and operant molding cooperate to direct conduct. A case, shoes my sister needs to put on before she goes outside and play may turn into an established molding (CS) that inspires a dread of wearing shoes in her. However the reaction of putting on her shoes is an operant conduct. This reaction is fortified through adverse fortification, since it decreases the individual’s dread of becoming ill. In this manner in evasion taking in a dread reaction is obtained through established molding and a shirking reaction is kept up by operant molding. Discipline Is a procedure whereby a boost is utilized after the introduction of conduct and prompt the decrease in the likelihood of the conduct to reoccur. Rather than fortification there are likewise results that abatement a being’s inclining to make a particular reaction. Positive discipline: Is the amassing of something which influences the diminishing in rehashing the conduct that was shown? Negative discipline, otherwise called discipline by expulsion, happens when an ideal occasion or result is evacuated after a conduct happens (Skinner, 1953, refered to inRyckman, 2013, p. 368). When I was more youthful my sister and I dozed in a similar room and we frequently battled with each other about who mulled over the highest point of the twofold bunk. Until the point when my dad got furious one day and sent us both to the shrewd corner for two entire hours, and while sitting alone it diminished our conduct and we never battled again with each other about dozing plans. Negative Punishment: Decreases the conduct from happening, it is evacuating charming boost when somebody isn’t doing the proper conduct. Eating sustenance was one of my troubles, since I rather anticipated the deserts amid super time, so I use to squander my nourishment. Father took away my spending and said I expected to figure out how to acknowledge and feel what poor children are experiencing. He even took me to the halfway house and I felt so awful, now I know not to squander nourishment since there are such a significant number of children out there who don’t have sustenance. My view on squandering sustenance has changed. OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING Depends on crafted by Albert Bandura (1977). Bandura and his partners>