Answer these questions (appr. 2,5 pages per question): 1. Critically evaluate whether the criminal offence of gross negligence manslaughter should continue to apply to healthcare professionals considering case law and academic opinion in your answer. 2. Abigail is an 18 month old child who suffers from a neurological degenerative condition. She was admitted to hospital at 3 weeks old and has remained in hospital ever since. Her condition is considered to be terminal by all those treating her. She is blind and deaf. The staff in charge of her care consider it probable that she cannot experience pain. She is on a ventilator, is in receipt of clinically assisted nutrition and hydration, and has a life expectancy of 6 months. Her parents, Jake and Pippa are Roman Catholics and oppose any withdrawal of the intensive life support that Abigail is receiving. They also do not accept the clinical prognosis for their daughter. They want to take Abigail to Spain for an experimental therapy. The staff and hospital consider that it would be in Abigail’s best interests to have treatment withdrawn as soon as possible. Critically analyse the legal and ethical challenges raised by the above scenario.
Numerous gatherings have been built up as countercultures over the span of history. In any case, what makes those gatherings really be thought about countercultures? Creator W. LaVerne Thomas endeavors to answer such an inquiry in his book, “a gathering [that] rejects the significant qualities, standards, and practices of the bigger society and replaces them with another arrangement of social examples” (Thomas). One gathering that fundamentally takes after Thomas’ definition are the Blackbeard privateers. This gathering rejected the social examples of the British government to carry on with their own particular merciless existence of taking, murdering, and assaulting. Right up ’til today privateers are as yet a critical risk to the individuals who tread worldwide waters, and even the individuals who live in underdeveloped nations. Before Blackbeard procured his name, he was known as Edward Teach or Edward Thatch. To the extent cause goes, very little is thought about Thatch. In any case, it is recorded that he joined the British naval force as a privateer amid the Queen Anne’s War, and swung to theft not long after (Division of Archives and History’s Office of State Archeology). Blackbeard started his pilfering in 1713 under the Captain Benjamin Hornigold (Ossian). When given a littler ship by Hornigold and ready to summon his own particular team as a commander, Blackbeard found the French slaver deliver La Concorde. This regarded ship would be referred to numerous as the Queen Anne’s Revenge, “La Concorde was enormous, quick, and effective. With such a vessel, Blackbeard knew his men could cause more havocâ€¦” (Woodard). In 1717, the two privateers were deadly to the point that the British government offered both Hornigold and Blackbeard cash in return for putting down pilfering. Hornigold acknowledged, though Blackbeard denied the offer, and kept desolating the Caribbean on his regarded Queen Anne’s Revenge. Nonetheless, his opportunity reached an end on November 22nd, 1718 when confronting a British Royal Navy Contingent sent by Governor Alexander Spottswood. Blackbeard and his group for the most part attacked sends for a certain something, and that was gold. All that they did depended on how much plunder they could take, and in spite of the fact that he has kicked the bucket numerous years back, his notoriety name still emerges ever of. Both the sociological point of view and the sociological creative ability can be utilized to clarify the activities of Blackbeard and his team. As indicated by creator LaVerne Thomas, “The sociological point of view causes you see that all individuals are social creatures. It discloses to you that your conduct is affected by social components and that you have taken in your conduct from others” (Thomas). Numerous heard and saw the stories of Blackbeard and his fierce group. Along these lines, numerous saw his activities and received them, to keep pilfering and adjusting Blackbeard’s methods for more productive looting. His name alone place fear in the hearts of men, such a significant number of see that dread and need to end up it; moving numerous to take up theft and life on the oceans. C. Wright Mills trusts the sociological creative ability is, “the ability to go from the most indifferent and remote [topics] to the most cozy highlights of the human self and to see the connection between the two” (Thomas). As it were, this depicts the understanding of how your social condition shapes you, and how you shape your social condition (Thomas). Blackbeard and his group’s condition in all likelihood incorporated a poor social foundation, and the departure of a friend or family member. Numerous who are eager and murder, have frequently experienced childhood in these conditions. They encircle themselves with killers and criminals, and in this manner progressed toward becoming killers and cheats themselves. They formed their social condition by encompassing others with a similar pessimistic conduct, in this way having new individuals join Blackbeard’s team. The more individuals in his group, implies the more individuals that go out and recount the scandalous story of Blackbeard, the relentless executioner. Ethnocentrism is a vast piece of any culture. It is portrayed as, “[the] propensity to see one’s own way of life and gathering as superiorâ€¦” (Thomas). Countercultures are subcultures, along these lines Blackbeard and his team is in fact a subculture of the bigger society the British government. Blackbeard and his team saw these standards as better than the confining life in the government, and in this manner ethnocentrism framed. Additionally, the British as of now having ethnocentrism, saw the restricting good gauges set by Blackbeard’s freshly discovered subculture, and rejected their perspectives, making Blackbeard and his team a counterculture. Numerous illustrations can be made with reference to why he and his group is a counterculture. One such case is that there was no law against murdering on Blackbeard’s ship, though it was banned in the British government. Another comparable case would be with taking, where Blackbeard pillaged and stole from different boats for plunder, while such abominations were illegal in the British government. Social relativism can be characterized as, “the conviction that societies ought to be judged by their own particular guidelines instead of by applying the measures of another culture” (Thomas). Plundering, ravaging, and slaughtering is the thing that privateers know. These basic principles can’t be judged outside social convictions without seeing the extensive good pessimism that takes after. Blackbeard and his team had no ethical compass, so their activities ought not be supported through the eyes of the British government. From a strategic perspective, them being solid, singled out the frail with a specific end goal to pick up riches and wind up more grounded on the planet. In spite of the fact that they may recognize what they do is ethically inadmissible and conflicts with the laws of numerous bigger social orders, they took after their own principles and conventions and ought not be judged outside of that. My counterculture Blackbeard and his team, have numerous charming standards and norms that restrict that of numerous social orders of that time and current circumstances. Be that as it may, this does not pardon the activities of Blackbeard and his group. Executing, taking, and ravaging all leave expansive stamps on this world. Anyplace from pounding the economy of a British town to slaughtering the last child of a forlorn French mother, societies that straightforwardly influence the bigger social orders in a negative way ought not exist. Societies having restricting gauges is totally fine, as long as the contradicting benchmarks does not effectively repudiate those of a bigger society. Blackbeard and his group have free principles, however the passings that have been caused constrains me to differ with the rationality and standards of their counterculture.>