1. Provide an argument for why a more variable pricing policy might increase the sales revenue from Apple’s Music Store (compared to the flat pricing policy). 2. Why do you think Apple moved from one to three price points in 2009? What types of songs do you think Apple tends to sell at the lower prices? 3. Discuss other potential pricing policies that might increase the revenue from Music Store sales. 4. What are the risks and potential costs of implementing more sophisticated pricing schemes for the downloaded music? 5. Is Apple’s pricing objective to maximize the revenue it receives from the sales of down- loaded music? Is this the objective of the major record companies? Explain. (Hint: review the revenue/product data from Apple’s 10-K— available online at www.sec.gov/cgi-bin/srch- edgar.) 6. Do you think that Apple’s ability to control the pricing of downloaded music is likely to change in the future? Explain. Case Study – iTunes Music Pricing Consumers have been able to purchase digital music and audiobooks over the Internet through Apple Computer’s iTunes Music Store (Music Store) since April 2003. The Music Store is integrated with Apple’s iTunes Software, which allows users to manage their digital music libraries and to interface with their iPods, iPhones, iPads, and other products. Apple’s stock price increased from $1 per share in April 2003 to over $95 per share in July 2014 (adjusted for stock splits). This 95-fold price increase compares to Microsoft’s stock, which increased from about $18 per share to $42 per share over the same period. Apple’s strong performance was fueled in part by the growth in its digital music business. In August 2005, Apple’s market shares for downloaded music and MP3 players in the United States were approximately 75 percent and 80 per- cent respectively. In 2013, Apple’s estimated market share for downloaded music was 63 percent. Amazon, which introduced its online music store in 2008, was second with a market share of 22 per- cent. From the inception of the Music Store until 2009, Apple priced all downloaded music at $.99 per song. About $.70 per song was paid to the major record companies that had the rights to the songs. The record companies were initially happy with this arrangement since it provided a way to collect at least some revenue from downloaded music. Prior to the development of iTunes, many consumers downloaded music through services such as Napster, with no royalties paid to the music companies or artists. By August 2005, Music Store sales had become “big business” and two of the four major record companies expressed dissatisfaction with the $.99 price. Sony BMG Music Entertainment and Warner Music favored a more complex pricing scheme that would price songs by popularity. A popular new single, for example, might sell for $1.49, while a “golden oldie” might sell for substantially less than $.99. Executives from these two music companies argued that their revenue stream could be enhanced by flexible pricing. They complained that Apple had an incentive to sell downloaded music at too low a price to promote the sale of iPods. To quote one music company executive, “Mr. Jobs has got two revenue streams: one from our music and one from the sale of his iPods. I’ve got one revenue stream that it would require a medical professional to locate. It’s not pretty.” Not all of the major record companies shared the same view. For example, as of August 2005, the Universal Music Group (a unit of Vivendi Universal—the industry’s biggest company) supported Apple’s desire to maintain the price of $.99 a track. The difference in opinion among the four record companies reflected varying views on whether the rapidly expanding digital market was stable enough to bear a mix of prices— particularly a higher top-end price. Millions of consumers were still trading music free on unauthorized file-swapping networks and an increase in price would increase the incentives to engage in this practice. One music executive noted, “I don’t think it’s time yet. We need to convert a lot more people to the habit of buying music online. I don’t think a way to convert more people is to raise the price.” In 2014, Apple priced most downloaded music at $1.29 per song. Adjusted for inflation, the 2014 price is very close to the 2003 price of 99 cents per song. Apple, however, sold a limited number of songs at 69 cents and 99 cents in 2014. Over the years, Apple has had substantial power in negotiating with the record companies. No music company has tried to force Apple to change its pricing policies by withholding its music. Analysts, however, forecasted that Apple’s leverage over the music companies could fall in the future due to increased competition, for example, from Amazon.com and major wireless companies who were likely to begin offering downloaded music services to cell phone customers.
With the most elevated representative turnover rate, the friendliness business need to urge workers to voice their sentiments, thoughts, and any of their different worries for enhancing execution and decreasing worker turnover. The motivation behind this examination is to research the effect of various kinds of authoritative culture and diverse administration styles on worker voice in the accommodation business. Cordiality human asset experts could adjust their authoritative culture and initiative style as per the aftereffects of the examination, with a specific end goal to energize their representative voice. The consequences of this examination could likewise add to the writing about elements that impact worker voice. Presentation As per www.skagitwatershed.org “Authority is a procedure by which a man impacts others to achieve a target and coordinates the association in a way that makes it more firm and intelligible. Pioneers do this procedure by applying their authority characteristics, for example, convictions, values, morals, character, information, and aptitudes”. Administration is a procedure of completing things through individuals. Administration isn’t a science. So being a pioneer is an experience since we can never make sure whether we will achieve our objective – in any event this time. The touchdown drive may end in a bobble. The troop may have a terrible end of the week amid the camporee. Or on the other hand the city’s residents may not be persuaded that the leader’s approaches are correct. So these pioneers need to attempt once more, utilizing different techniques. In any case, regardless they utilize a similar procedure the procedure of good initiative (Oran’s, 1997). Worker Turnover As per Wood (1992), “characterizes representative turnover as the rate of progress in the quantity of workers of a worry amid an unmistakable period normally a month”. In some different ways it is characterized as a measure of the degree to which old workers leaves and new representatives enter the administration of the worry. Though in its sociological setting representative turnover infers to a procedure of progress in the measure of the work power and this implies the reasons, which make this wonder happen in any mechanical unit. Representative turnover is in actuality development of workers all through firms and the principle reasons could be deliberate or automatic. Method of reasoning Through the ages we have learnt that the best way to put the client first in the friendliness business is by putting the worker first. The justification may not be extremely self-evident, but rather it is surely convincing. Fulfilled workers prompt fulfilled clients. Overall examines have proposed that worker turnover is among the most noteworthy in the friendliness business. Studies have demonstrated that normal yearly worker turnover go from around 60 to 300 % (Mehta, 2005). Lodgings burn through thousands consistently for each new representative they should prepare to supplant a prepared specialist who clears out. It is never again a startling reality that the cost of losing a representative is amongst half and one-and-a-half circumstances their yearly pay. Foundation There are considers that help the way that workers leave an association for some reasons, yet two basic causes are the nature of the determination framework and the nature of administration (Mehta, 2005). Seemingly lodgings bolster a culture that cultivates reliance and depends on the customary levels of leadership, and not all bosses are great supervisors and great group pioneers that leads high representative turnover. In the light of this suggestion, the proposed inquire about plans to look at as whether initiative prompts high worker turnover. The examination will be led with reference to Delhi based inns. Points AND OBJECTIVES The proposed look into means to analyze as whether administration prompts high worker turnover. The exploration is to be directed with reference to Delhi based five star lodgings. The exploration will endeavor to achieve following goals: To look at the level of representative turnover issue in inns To recognize and assess the premier causes representative turnover in lodgings To look at position of authority as causing representative turnover in lodgings To explore what are the foundations for the high worker turnover in the inns. To inspect are what the outcomes of the high worker turnover in inns. To think about how the decrease turnover and increment representative maintenance in lodgings. RESEARCH QUESTIONS Are characteristics of administration principal reasons of representative turnover in lodgings? Isn’t right authority causes high level of representative turnover in lodgings? Structure of thesis Creator has partitioned the exposition in five sections, in the principal section creator has talk about the points and goals of the report, inquire about folklore in which he has utilized essential and auxiliary research. He has talked about the impediments and foundation of the paper in this part. In the second part creator has given a writing audit talking about the significance of worker turnover and its significance in this day and age. Creator has likewise clarified authority and representative turnover and how it can have any kind of effect in fruitful and not all that fruitful organizations. Additionally the creator has demonstrated distinctive approaches to quantify worker turnover. At long last, the creator has clarified how representative turnover is having any kind of effect in an inn industry and their worker. In the third part creator has completed an examination folklore talking about testing strategies and test estimate which is been utilized for a fulfillment of the report. In the forward section creator has done discoveries and investigation in view of a poll arranged by the creator. Lastly in the last section creator has done his decision on the report. Writing Review This area displays the hypothetical ideas with regards to previously mentioned look into points and destinations and research questions. “Representative turnover is the pivot of specialists around the work advertise; between firms, employments and occupations; and between the conditions of business and joblessness” (Abassi et al., 2000). The expression “turnover” is characterized by Price (1977) as: the proportion of the quantity of authoritative individuals who have left amid the period being viewed as isolated by the normal number of individuals in that association amid the period. Every now and again, supervisors allude to turnover as the whole procedure related with filling an opportunity: Each time a position is emptied, either intentionally or automatically, another representative must be enlisted and prepared. This substitution cycle is known as turnover (Woods, 2002). Most analysts (Kalliath and Beck, 2001; Kramer et al., 1995; Saks, 1996) have endeavored to answer the subject of what decides individuals’ aim to stop by researching conceivable forerunners of representatives’ aims to stop. To date, there has been little consistency in discoveries, which is incompletely because of the decent variety of utilized included by the specialists and the absence of consistency in their discoveries. In this manner, there are a few reasons why individuals quit starting with one association then onto the next or why individuals leave association. The experience of occupation related pressure (work pressure), the range factors that prompt employment related pressure (stressors), absence of duty in the association; and employment disappointment make representatives to stop (Firth et al., 2004). This obviously shows these are singular choices, which make one to stop. They are different elements like individual office alludes to ideas, for example, a feeling of frailty, locus of control and individual control. Locus control alludes to the degree to which individuals trust that the outside components, for example, possibility and effective others are responsible for the occasions which impact their lives (Firth et al., 2004). Manu et al. (2004) contend that representatives quit from association due monetary reasons. Utilizing monetary model they demonstrated that individuals quit from association because of financial reasons and these can be utilized to anticipate the work turnover in the market. Hierarchical shakiness has been appeared to have a high level of high turnover. Signs are that representatives will probably stay when there is an anticipated workplace and the other way around (Zuber, 2001). In associations where there was an abnormal state of wastefulness there was additionally an abnormal state of staff turnover (Alexander et al., 1994). Hence, in circumstances where associations are not steady representatives have a tendency to stop and search for stable associations on the grounds that with stable associations they would have the capacity to foresee their professional success. The inconvenience of a quantitative way to deal with dealing with the representatives prompted disappointment of staff and henceforth it prompts worker turnover. Along these lines administration ought not utilize quantitative approach in dealing with its representatives. Receiving a cost situated way to deal with business costs expands representative turnover (Simon et al., 2007). All these methodologies ought to be stayed away from if directors need to limit worker turnover an expansion authoritative intensity in this condition of globalization.>