After gaining information and advice from your peers in the Discussion, this Assignment will allow you to practice individually and increase your skills with measures of association and impact. Your goal for this Assignment is to compute and interpret measures of association and impact.
To prepare for this Assignment, you must have mastered the materials, clarify any questions you may have about the material presented in the textbook, demonstration video, or any chapter questions at the ends of the assigned chapters.
There are 3 questions that have been assigned to you for your problem set.
You are expected to complete all problems, showing your work.
Be sure that your completed problem set includes your responses to all questions and shows the calculations and/or reasoning to justify all answers.
Please see problem set below:
Recently, Australian researchers conducted a study of the relationship between optimism and colon cancer survival. Their hypothesis was that colon cancer patients who had a positive outlook on life would have a lower five-year cumulative incidence of mortality. The study included 100 recently diagnosed colon cancer patients who underwent psychological testing and were found to have a optimistic outlook on life and 100 recently diagnosed colon cancer patients who underwent the same psychological tests and were found to have a pessimistic outlook on life. By the end of five years of follow-up, 50 of the 100 patients with the optimistic outlook and 75 of the 100 patients with the pessimistic outlook had died from colon cancer.
• Set up and fill in the two by two table using these data.
• What is the prevalence of colon cancer in the study population?
• Compare the cumulative incidence of mortality in the optimistic group to the cumulative incidence of mortality in the pessimistic group using a ratio measure of association.
• State in words your interpretation of the result you found in part c.
For this problem, note the following chart:
(in years) % of Population in Age Group Influenza Rate per 1,000 person-years
CITY A CITY B CITY C Massachusetts CITY A CITY B CITY C
YOUNG 40% 50% 80% 60% 2 10 30
OLD 60% 50% 20% 40% 70 110 5
There are 10,000 individuals in City A, which is located in Massachusetts. Eight young individuals and 420 old individuals develop the flu over the course of a year.
• Use these data to calculate the crude influenza rate per 1,000 individuals per years in City A.
• What is the crude rate of influenza in City B?
• What is the crude rate of influenza in City C?
• Calculate an age-adjusted influenza rate for each of the cities. Use the age distribution for the State of Massachusetts (shown in the table) as the standard.
Phthalates are present in many diverse products, including insect repellents, body lotions, perfumes, and food packaging. Because animal experiments suggest that phthalates may have an adverse effect on the male reproductive system, a group of infertility specialists decided to conduct a case-control study on phthalate exposure and sperm abnormalities in adult men.100 cases with sperm abnormalities and 100 controls were identified and enrolled from among patients at their infertility clinic. 30 cases and 10 controls had high urinary phthalate levels; the remainder had normal urinary phthalate levels.
• Set up and fill in the two by two table using these data
• Use these data to calculate the odds ratio describing the relationship between phthalate levels and sperm abnormalities
• State in words your interpretation of this odds ratio
More clever thing and organization change needs in any case managers and pioneers thinking outside their regular thing and organization contributions (Blowfield and Murray, 2008). The move to a more socially proficient business essential has opened up new markets and openings inside which an affiliation can expand and succeed (Watchman and Kramer, 2006). Those affiliations close to CSR will miss these openings and hazard being betrayed. Notwithstanding whether openings are recognized, access to capital may end up being continuously troublesome for non-CSR firms. With the rising of Socially Responsible Investment, affiliations that don’t partake in CSR can control their passage to capital and hereafter, their improvement potential (Porter and Kramer, 2006). Also, affiliations hazard more conspicuous authoritative mediation if they don’t change to more socially competent ways. The present example towards heading of business practices has highlighted the way that if governments and approach makers perceive frustrations in restraint, they are more than willing to progress in and oversee business lead (Lynch-Wood et al, 2009). Establishment changes and consistence necessities are both restrictive and excessive to affiliations. In case affiliations disregard to go well past the present consistence essentials, they chance all the additionally being constrained on their activities (Bênabou and Tirole, 2010). These perils all can basically influence an affiliations efficiency and in unprecedented cases, whole deal survival. These considerations also should be make enough for associations reevaluate their default position on CSR exercises. Whatever the deficiencies of the CSR improvement, and the ideologically animated chats about definition, society and the overall economy are generally changed. Being socially careful is directly the most ideal approach to cooperate. Corporate Social Responsibility is a sounds business thought, however since quite a while ago combat examines around its definition have diminished the impact that it may have had on the business gathering. The truth remains that paying little heed to whether affiliations act in a socially tried and true route, there is some level of advantage motivated self-energy supporting these decisions. The best advance in moving (convincing?) relationship to be more socially careful has been societal and natural changes outside to the firm. Overall industry and peoples have incited the corruption of rough materials and non-sustainable power sources which has made it crucial for a few, dares to reconsider how they cooperate. Viable headway has advanced toward getting to be focus to business errands in numerous parts and is right now more an occurrence of good business sharpen than falling under the CSR flag. Society has furthermore watched the impact that business has on their indigenous natural surroundings and gatherings when all is said in done, and is directly prepared and prepared for calling relationship into speak to careless, untrustworthy lead. In rundown, controls outside to the affiliation have had a more significant effect in moving relationship towards the CSR culminate than the CSR advancement itself. Despite how more socially careful business sharpens are proficient, the change is sure and in all cases. Impressive peril still remains for those associations who don’t get CSR practices. The proposals join reputational possibility, the inability to pull in and hold staff and the probability of extended heading. Fail to get a handle on CSR also can influence the whole deal sensibility of an affiliation, diminishing access to capital, missing open entryways for advancement and the failure to isolate your picture from whatever is left of the pack. The conclusion being that being socially reliable isn’t any more optional, it is essentially the way extraordinary business is done. References Ashley, P. in addition, Crowther, D. (2012), Territories of social commitment. to start with ed. Farnham, Surrey, England: Gower. Bênabou, R. in addition, Tirole, J. (2010), Individual and Corporate Social Responsibility. Economica, 77: 1– 19. Bhattacharya, C.B., Sankar, S., Korschun, D., (2008), “Using Corporate Social Responsibility to Win the War for Talent”, MIT Sloan Management Review, (http://sloanreview.mit.edu/article/using corporate-social-commitment to-win-the-war-for-capacity/) Blowfield, M. in addition, Murray, A. (2008), Corporate Responsibility: a fundamental introduction, OUP. Dahlsrud, A. (2008), “How Corporate Social Responsibility is Defined: an Analysis of 37 Definitions”, Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 15 (1), pp 1-13. Drucker, P. (1954), The Practice of Management, Allied Partners, New York. Fitzgerald, N. in addition, Cormack, M. (2011), The Role of Business in Society. An Agenda for Action, Joint Initiative by the Conference Board, Harvard University CSR Initiative and the International Business Leaders Forum for the advantage of the Clinton Initiative. ( http://www.hks.harvard.edu/m-rcbg/CSRI/dispersions/report_12_CGI%20Role%20of%20Business%20in%20Society%20Report%20FINAL%2010-03-06.pdf ) Friedman, M. (1970), “The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits”, The New York Times Magazine, September 13, 1970, pp 122-126. Worldwide Organization for Standardization 2010, Guidance Standard on Social Responsibility (ISO 26000). Lynch-Wood, G., Williamson, D. furthermore, Jenkins, W. (2009), “The over-reliance on self-course in CSR game plan”, Business Ethics: An European Review, 18 (1), pp 52-65. Craftsman, C., and Simmons, J. (2014), “Introducing Corporate Social Responsibility in Corporate Governance: A Stakeholder Systems Approach”, Journal of Business Ethics, 119, pp 77-86. McWilliams, A., Siegel, D.S., and Wright, P.M. (2006), “Corporate Social Responsibility: Strategic Implications”, Journal of Management Studies, 43 (1), pp 1-18. Money, K. furthermore, Schepers, H. (2007), “Are CSR and Corporate Governance Converging?” Journal of General Management, 33 (2). Guard, M.E., and Kramer, M.R.(2006), “Framework and Society: The Link Between Competitive Advantage and Corporate Social Responsibility”, Harvard Business Review, December 2006, pp 78-93. Servaes, H. furthermore, Tamayo, A. (2013), “The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Firm Value: The Role of Customer Awareness”, Management Science,59,(5), pp. 1045– 1061. Redman, E., (2005), “Understanding the Corporate Social Responsibility Continuum”, LBJ Journal of Public Affairs , 18, pp 72-84. Walker, K. moreover, Dyck, B. (2014), “The Primary Importance of Corporate Social Responsibility and Ethicality in Corporate Reputation: An Empirical Study”, Business and Society Review,119 (1), pp 147– 174. The lifestyles and culture of India is developing drastically. The quantity of tenants in India is growing every year and this will specifically influence the FMCG business and its affiliations. Regardless of the way that people of India is extending every year the masses improvement rate is decreasing over some extend of time. In 2008 the masses advancement rate is 1.6%, in 2009 it is 1.5%. In 2010 the improvement rate is 1.3%. Regardless of the way that the figures didn’t change unquestionably, the free market movement of the FMCG things will be affected as a result of advance in masses structure. There will be reduce mainstream and excellent competition as the birth rates and number of customers lessen. Specifically it is the change is lifestyle of Indian customers and social direct will impact the FMCG business in India. It will ask for another things and organizations over the time and will incite increase in enthusiasm for R&D of FMCG associations. By and by the world is looking with support need provoking extending place assets into sustenance creation. If the affiliations disregard to offer things and organizations according to changing lifestyle and direct then it will be troublesome for any relationship to make due in the market. >