PART A. 20 MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS (1 mark each, total 20)
Answer Multiple Choice Questions on the mark sense sheet provided.
1. Learning curve effect is
a) The ability to increase a machine’s productive capacity through usage
b) The ability to improve a process capacity through the usage of a machine
c) The human ability to adjust their productive capacity through learning
d) The human ability to increase their productive capacity through learning
2. Value can be added to an entity in all the following ways, EXCEPT:
3. Many organizations are attempting to manage interdependent activities as one process referred to as:
a) Project management
b) Lean management
c) Supply chain management
d) Inventory management
4. A distinction between normal goods and information/knowledge is that
a) Normal goods wear out, but information/knowledge does not
b) Information/knowledge can be given or sold to many others
c) Information/knowledge is subject to diminishing returns, but physical outputs are subject to increasing returns
d) Both A and B
5. Which of the following is a major difference between continuous processes and flow shops?
a) Inputs are fixed for the former and the flow of work is continuous for the latter
b) In flow shops, there is a discrete product or service instead of products not naturally divisible
c) Degree of automation is higher for flow shops
d) Both B and C
6. Which of the following is NOT a well-known problem in flow shops?
b) Workers may be dehumanized by manufacturing lines
d) All of the above are well-known problems in flow shops
7. Which of the following is FALSE regarding statistical sampling for control purposes?
a) The more samples are taken, the higher the likelihood of accidentally selecting a sample with excessive values when the process actually is still under control
b) Deciding what indicators are high or low enough to be considered out of control is the simplest of the problems facing operation managers
c) Measuring upper and lower control limits are the basis for management by exception
d) Using high thresholds for control increases the risk of not detecting processes that are getting out of control
8. Service defections are important in process control for services because:
a) No advertising is necessary to get the business of long-term customers
b) They are equally important to organizations that produce tangible outputs
c) A customer who takes their business elsewhere is analogous to a product defect
d) Long-time customers are more likely to purchase additional products
9. Which of the following is NOT an original component of reengineering?
a) A radical change in the way work is performed
b) Process-centered reorganization of activities
c) An emphasis in getting rid of unnecessary employees
d) A dramatic improvement in performance
10. Which of the following tools and methodologies is NOT used in the Measure Phase of Six Sigma?
a) Design of experiments (DOE)
b) Pareto Analysis
c) Process Maps
d) Rolled throughput yield (RTY)
11. Choose a common problem from the Measure phase.
a) Calculation of a baseline to evaluate benefits of potential improvements
b) The process mean can shift as much as 1.5 standard deviations
c) Performance metrics based on the availability of data
d) 3.4 defects per million opportunities (DPMO) may occur easily in complex operations
12. A patient diagnosis is an example of what type of activity?
b) Nonvalue-added but necessary
c) Nonvalue-added and not necessary
d) Necessary and value-neutral
13. A value stream map:
a) Can only be used in manufacturing facilities
b) May also be used for service providers
c) Shows the flow of materials and information with suppliers shown on the left of the diagram and customers on the right
d) Both B and C
14. The goal of this approach is to mistake-proof work activities in a way that prevents errors from being committed in the first place:
a) Kaizen blitz
b) Poka Yoke
d) Six sigma
15. Project charters should contain some level of information regarding which of the following elements:
a) Business case, goals, or scope
b) Overview, general approach, schedules or milestones
c) Work breakdown structure and path dependencies
d) Both A and B
16. The amount of flexibility the project manager has in terms of starting and completing an activity is referred to as its:
d) Both A and B
17. Which of the following is NOT a factor that is increasing the need to better manage the supply chain?
a) Optimization of their own value by most segments in the supply chain
b) Global competition and outsourcing
c) E-commerce and telecommunications
d) Outsourcing and shorter life cycles
18. Which of the following is TRUE about the bullwhip effect?
a) Variability in demand increases from the factory stage downstream to the customer stage
b) This cycle is prevalent in just about every industry
c) Lead times between the stages of the supply chain tend to be very short
d) Information lags stemming from large lot sizes with infrequent orders may be a cause
19. __________ inventories exist because materials must be moved from one location to another.
20. The four major considerations in selecting a national or overseas region for the facility are:
a) Labor supply, availability of inputs, foreign management, and environment
b) Proximity, labor supply, availability of inputs, and environment
c) Proximity, environment, facility size, and foreign management styles
d) Proximity, environment, facility size, and labor supply
PART B. ANSWER 4 OUT OF 5 SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS (10 marks each, total 40 marks)
Answer Short Answer Questions in the answer booklet provided. Note, answer 4 questions only.
1. It is commonly said that Japanese firms employ 10 times as many engineers as U.S. firms and 10 times fewer accountants. What effect would you expect this to have on their competitiveness, and why?
2 Briefly describe the differences in measuring efficiency between service and manufacturing organizations. (10 marks)
3. If a job shop was being laid out in a Third World country, how might the procedure be different in a Western country. What other factors might be considered that would not exist in an industrialized country? Might the layout also differ among industrialized countries such as Europe and Japan? How about a flow shop?
4. The theory of constraints distinguishes between process batches and transfer batches. It also recommends that process batch is very according to the economics of efficiency at each stage of production. Considering the effects of order size and size of the preceding process batch, how then should transfer batches be determined?
PART C. CASE STUDY EXERCISES (15 marks each, total 30)
Answer Case Study Exercises in the answer booklet provided. Formula sheet is at the end of the exam paper.
1. The time between patient arrivals to the blood drawing unit of a medical lab averages two minutes. The lab is staffed with two nurses that actually draw the patient’s blood. The nurses work from 9.00 AM to 5:30 PM and get two 10 minute breaks and a half-hour for lunch. What is the takt time for drawing patient’s blood?
2. The Corner Convenience Store [CCS] in northern Chicago, USA receives orders from its distributor in three days from the time an order is placed. Light Cola sells at the rate of 860 cans per day. [You can sell 250 days of the year.] A six-pack of light cola costs CCS $1.20. Annual holding cost is 10% of the cost of the cola. Order cost is $25. What is CCS’s EOQ.?
Cycle Time = Available work time / Demand
Efficiency = Output / Input
Takt time = available work time / customer required volume
Activity slack = TLS – TES = TLF – TEF
How would you think the media influence us? Basically assess discusses on media impacts and conventional and new ways to deal with media impact hypotheses. With reference to one specific contextual investigation, give you considered evaluation of how the media impact, and influence, us. It has been generally acknowledged by the general population that the media is equipped for Influencing social orders on an expansive scale. The media has for quite some time been regarded as a great power inside society that can subvert standards and qualities that could at last undermine our social request. How the media precisely influence us can be viewed as a somewhat complex issue that worries numerous media researchers for quite a while. Different speculations on media impact has been made by a portion of the incredibly famous’ correspondence researchers with a specific end goal to portray how the media impact individuals. Verbal confrontations on how the media impact may cause more damage than great Is as yet continuous till now. Henceforth, it is the most extreme significance to investigate the different models of media impact and how it has developed keeping in mind the end goal to completely see how the media really impact us. Particularly now since we are as of now living in a media soaked culture, like never before we rely upon the media for our comprehension of world occasions. This article means to break down customary and new methodologies of media impact, and looked to discuss on the validity of different media impact speculations. The five media impact speculations specified in this article will incorporate the Hypodermic Needle Theory, The Reception hypothesis, Two Step Flow hypothesis, Catharsis hypothesis and Encoding and Decoding hypothesis. To assist the examination of media impact on society, this paper will likewise address the subject of good frenzy and how it is identified with media impact. At long last, this article will likewise play out a contextual investigation on the commonness of savage conduct among youngsters caused by high fierce symbolism depicted by media industry. A few people contended that the measure of viciousness displayed in the media is the center reason making youthful watchers embrace fierce conduct, however this may not be fundamentally valid. The possibility that the media effectsly affects individuals made strides amid the 1920’s and 1930’s, in light of the rightist treatment towards society and tyrants using the media as a publicity instrument in nations like Germany and Russia. After analyst started watching the impact of purposeful publicity amid World War 1, they achieved the simple first hypothesis of media impacts which is known as the Hypodermic Needle Theory or the Magic Bullet Model. The Hypodermic Needle Theory is a straight correspondence hypothesis which recommends that media messages are infused specifically into the brains of a latent, open, uncritical gathering of people. A great case of the use of the hypodermic needle hypothesis was outlined on October 30, 1938 when Orson Welles and the recently shaped Mercury Theater gather communicated their sensation of H.G Wells’ “War of the Worlds.” The program, which was exhibited in the arrangement of a news release, caused one million audience of the 12 million audience in America to be “hysterical”. A flood of mass agitation aggravated families, interfered with religious administrations causing serious congested roads and stopped up significant correspondence framework. Individuals even fled their homes in the city to look for shield in more provincial zones, markets were attacked and individuals started to proportion sustenance. The country was in a condition of disarray caused by a solitary communicate of what was intended to be a radio sensation of an outstanding book. After the occasion happened media scholar arranged the “War of the Worlds” communicate as the original case of the Hypodermic Needle Theory and a case of good frenzy. This occasion showed flawlessly on how the media functioned, basically by infusing the message straightforwardly into the circulatory system of the general population like a medication, it at that point effectively fortified a uniform reaction from the mass populace. This hypothesis indicates how gatherings of people are seen a uninvolved and simple people who could without much of a stretch be controlled by the media. In spite of the fact that the Hypodermic Needle Theory has decreased in the 1930’s since it neglects to perceive the way that gathering of people themselves are dynamic makers of significance. By and by, the Hypodermic Needle Theory is one of the most punctual and key hypothesis of media impacts that keeps on affecting the way we discuss the media and the formation of other media impact hypothesis. In any case, this hypothesis may in any case be material to kids or youthful watchers as they are thought about to a great degree detached gathering of people and uncritical. They would not have the capacity to recognize what is correct and what isn’t right and may perhaps consider viciousness to be a satisfactory conduct in the public eye. Consequently, it is regularly prescribed that media industry to apply restriction to keep youngsters from locking onto brutal conduct. Not at all like what Hypodermic Needle Theory delineated, the media impact process can be viewed as a more perplexing thing, the media doesn’t really have add up to immediate and intense effect on gatherings of people as it include more factors. Media and gathering of people relationship does not exist in void but rather is included and impacted by numerous things, for example, social setting, culture and political-economy. Gathering of people would comprises of extraordinary people who have diverse social and culture which makes it dangerous to conceptualize one mass group of onlookers. The term dynamic gathering of people was then made close by the Reception hypothesis which is the correct perfect inverse of the Hypodermic Needle Theory. This hypothesis perceives watchers as dynamic members in media that can shape out one of a kind reactions from every individual watchers. Campbell and Morgan (2009) states that one specific message got by five distinct individuals most presumably make five interesting reactions relying upon individual factors, for example, religion, training, culture, political connection and legitimate structure. Lazarsfeld and Katz (1955) likewise include that individuals may move toward becoming sentiment pioneers, typically are people who give careful consideration to the media. This additionally convey us to the following media impact hypothesis called the Two-Flow step hypothesis which propose that media implications are interceded through key people that impacts how we think. These purported ‘supposition pioneers’ tried to watch media substance and pass on their understanding of media to others. In a paper displayed at the twentieth Annual World Wide Web Conference in 2011, specialists figured out how to investigate the stream of data on the person to person communication webpage Twitter and uncovered that they had discovered noteworthy confirmation to help the Two Step Flow Theory. Analysts found that news appropriated in twitter discover its way through individuals various conspicuous and persuasive assessment pioneers like famous people, writer and bloggers. Eventually the media is never again observed as having solid intense direct impact on groups of onlookers any longer. (Lazarsfeld, 1955). Another hypothesis called the Catharsis hypothesis was made, the expression “Purgation” is gotten from the Greek word Katharsis which actually implies purifying, cleansing, or sanitization. This hypothesis has assumed a critical part in the discourse about the impacts of viciousness in the broad communications for a long time. It suggests that the execution of a forceful activity under specific conditions lessens the forceful drive and thusly decreases the probability of further forceful activity. The urgent point in Catharsis Theory is that the watched forceful activity does not really should be executed in all actuality, it can rather happen in the group of onlookers dream and creative energies. This is firmly connected to the consumerism part of broad communications in whereby groups of onlookers utilize what they see on the media to satisfy the diverse needs and needs they have (Goldstein, 1998). A standout amongst the most widely recognized necessities of group of onlookers is the inclination to escape reality. The broad communications industry can give these sensation through wide cluster of movies or amusements displaying normal for catastrophe and savagery for the crowd to wash down their negative sentiments (Campbell and Morgan, 2009). Cleansing is then esteemed to be gainful to both the individual and society. Individuals seeing viciousness situated TV projects, movies or computer games encounters enthusiastic discharge from negative emotions, for example, dread and outrage. The excite and energy conveyed by these media content meets the bold needs of the group of onlookers without really setting them in any genuine hazard (Edgar, 1977). This hypothesis at that point recommend that kids who are presented to brutality on the media are probably not going to wind up honing it, since they are cleansed of their forceful drive and negative inclination. The greater part of the hypothetical methodologies examined have just assigned capacity to either the crowd or the media. One of the pioneer attempts to split far from this over accentuation of one-sided control was set up by Stuart Hall’s through his encoding/deciphering hypothesis created in the 1980’s. Corridor (1980) contends that media maker ‘encode’ particular implications in media content, which is disseminated to crowds who will then translate and recreate these implications through their own particular comprehension (Hall, 1980 pp 128). Corridor does not simply outline a center ground amongst group of onlookers and the media yet in addition brings media makers into the condition and their parts in this relationship. Corridor propose that makers of the media message would generally encodes their motivation and presumption in the media content which will then shapes the ‘favored implications’ of the content. Such implications would then point of confinement and guide group of onlookers understandings. Correspondingly to the Reception hypothesis, Hall’s Encoding and Decoding hypothesis recommend that particular factors outside the media content, for example, sexual orientation, training and ethnicity do assume a part in impacting group of onlookers’ understandings. One reason why encoding and unraveling model is huge in media considers is on account of it adjusts the connection between the media and the group of onlookers, restoring some capacity to the media>