Conduct further research on the pricing strategies of generic drug manufacturers. Analyze the pricing strategies and discuss the following: 1. Discuss the pricing decisions of generic drug manufacturers. 2. Evaluate the impact competitors and additional economic factors have on the results of the generic drug pricing strategies. What factors contribute to the advantages and disadvantages of various pricing strategies? 3. Discuss the social and financial implications of generic drug pricing decisions for various groups of stakeholders. What would be the socially optimum pricing strategy for the United States? What would be the socially optimum pricing strategy globally?
In 1898 the United States picked up control of the Philippines. Not long after obtaining the islands, they started a ridiculous battle to stifle the guerrilla uprising that was approaching. Not long after their entry in the Philippines, the troops that were positioned in the Philippines were trained how to smoke opium. Despite the fact that this training was extremely regular among the troops, the current U.S. Opium Commissioner Hamilton Wright chose to prevent all cases from securing them taking an interest in this demonstration. He expressed in 1909 that “among the faculty of our Army and Navy [in the Philippines] there isn’t the scarcest confirmation that the utilization of opium or its subsidiaries has been presented (Brush, n.d.).” This utilization of opium in the Philippines was resistant not the last time that the U.S. military would utilize medications, for example, opium amid the battle to battle guerilla powers. Whenever that this training was utilized was in the United States’ association in the Vietnam War between the years 1965-1975. Since the start of the twentieth century the United States had volunteered begin controlling medications by shaping distinctive approaches to manage sedates and ensure the general population of their nation. One of the main fronts of the control of medications was the leader of the Bureau of Narcotics, Harry Anslinger. Amid the time of the 1950’s, the agency initially settled diverse posts in Southern Asia in wants to bend the wellspring of where distinctive medications were coming into the United States from (Kuzmarov, 2008). At that point later in 1962, the Kennedy Administration furnished Mexico with “$500,00 worth of helicopters, light planes, jeeps, and rifles through the Agency of International Development for uncommon opiate pulverization battle focusing on maryjane and opium cultivators (Kuzmarov, 2008).” This would set a point of reference for the not so distant future. The Vietnam War took after the First Indochina War and was battled between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. North Vietnam was upheld by socialist powers and South Vietnam was bolstered by hostile to comrade nations, for example, the United States. A couple of years before in 1945, President Truman expressed, “I trust that it must be the arrangement of the United States to help free people groups who are opposing endeavored oppression by outfitted minorities or by outside weights. I trust that we should help free people groups to work out their own predeterminations in their own specific manner (Yancey, 2001).” The Unites States saw that the help of the Southern Vietnamese individuals as an approach to battle their concept of “regulation” (Yancey, 2001). Numerous officers in the ordered amid the Vietnam War did not have any desire to make the Army a profession. They were for the most part uneducated people who needed in the experience that the higher positioning authorities did. These GI’s absence of intrigue, training, and involvement in wars may have been one of the numerous reasons that resolve for the Vietnam War blurred so rapidly. In 1971, President Nixon declared the arrangement of the Special Action for Drug Abuse Prevention (SAODAP) that was responsible for planning and giving an account of the developing medication issues of the Vietnam War. A portion of their discoveries incorporated that around 40% of the willful enlistees of the troops were school dropouts and a large number of them enrolled in the military before the fitting age as a result of what number of little open doors that they had concerning parts of their lives, for example, employments. They likewise had significantly more medication encounters than that of the draftees later on in the war (Korsmeyer and Kranzler, 2009). In the later long stretches of the war, the draftees were picked by a lottery intended to make a choice less vulnerable to “social class predispositions (Korsmeyer and Kranzler, 2009).” Their best need in this abnormal land was survival and numerous swung to drugs as an approach to get away (Yancy, 2001). In this paper I will talk about the part liquor, weed, opium, and amphetamine had on the Vietnam War. In the beginning times of the Vietnam War, liquor mishandle was the most well-known medication utilized. Huge numbers of the men shared in day by day drinking with a specific end goal to pass the long days and evenings in Vietnam. This liquor mishandle did not cause much contention in special case of the individuals who were underage. The high positioning officers who shared in day by day liquor mishandle were nicknamed “the juicers,” and the lower positioning draftees of the war were nicknamed “the heads” because of their liberality in unlawful medications, for example, cannabis (Kutler, 1996). Drinking liquor was essentially empowered by the Army men. The drinking did everything to energize their generalization of the intense and generous men that they endeavored to depict. Bars around the bases were given exceptional licenses with a specific end goal to apportion lager and different alcohols to the troops, even in the dugouts (Kutler, 1996). As the war proceeded with, numerous couldn’t overlook the way that pot utilize was consistently expanding. As the Army’s battle part in the Vietnam War slowed down, illegal medications kept on being an issue. With the diminishing help from the home front, the U.S. powers chose to swing to the Nixon Doctrine. Through the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) and the Vietnamization program, fighters were required to spend incalculable forlorn months behind dugouts in seclusion (Sanders, 1973). The men persevered through numerous desolate evenings in a world that was totally new and unfamiliar to them. They were tossed into a world that was so new to them and their families and companions that were of high repute to them were most of the way around the globe. This negative state of mind on the war and the home front caused the Vietnam War to lose its help and quite a bit of its authenticity which filled an extraordinary situation for medicate utilize and mishandle (Kutler, 1996). The most normally mishandled of the medications being cannabis. Cannabis is one of those special medications that can have an altogether different impact on various individuals. In one hand, it can act like a stimulant yet in the meantime go about as a depressant (Iversen, 2008). The United States has been endeavoring to direct the dissemination and offers of cannabis since the 1930’s after the Marijuana Tax Stamp. In 1954 the Federal Bureau of Narcotics started to examine the trafficking of opium from Laos. The landscape of Laos is for the most part bumpy with numerous slopes and levels. This gave the ideal scene to carrying opiates, for example, opium with little doubts from the legislature and other prying eyes (Kuzmarov, 2008). As the troopers came pouring in from the United States amid the war, this caused stress over the illegal medications being snuck through the territory and what this implied for the U.S. Military. A large number of the ranchers around of the territory sold and bundled cannabis as a methods for extra wage. Cannabis is a simple plant to develop on the grounds that it is a weed. It doesn’t require extremely fruitful soils or even a lot of water, making it the ideal product for these poor ranchers (Iversen, 2008). It was additionally a consequence of the little implementation of Drug Laws that were not very much characterized and of little significance according to the Vietnamese criminal equity framework. There was no administration control or requirement office over maryjane (Brush, n.d.). The agriculturists would frequently pack their weed in various brands of cigarettes and other smoking tobacco for conveyance. The exceptionally powerful pot was sold for a $1.50 in US money, which was extremely shoddy when contrasted with the cost in America. U.S. News and World Report cited that “Maryjane in Vietnam is shoddy, simple to discover and strong. Each of the a man needs to do to get it is say the work Khan Sa (Zinberg, 1975).” Even however this medication was promptly accessible numerous men just smoked it coolly to quiet down after a fight or to get away from the demise and decimation that they were seeing each day. In an investigation done at the Long Binh Jail, therapist Roger A. Roffman presumed that exclusive 28.9% of GI’s positioned in the Southern Corps had attempted pot in any event once. After later distributing their examination, the broad communications expanded their discoveries and were revealing that as high as 90% of American troops in Vietnam were on drugs (Kuzmarov, 2008). Just a little level of American troops revealed vigorously smoking cannabis. Media consideration regarding the utilization of medications in Vietnam was enormously understood to what was really going on. They didn’t recognize for the majority between the medication utilize and the medication mishandle (Zinberg, 1975). In consistent worry over the regularly expanding “enslavement” issue among the GI’s, in 1969, a crusade for the annihilation of weed was propelled by the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs and the Vietnamese unique police. Some guess this was likewise an elective plan to the Vietnamese to drive out any guerillas and power different villagers into government ran camps. The fallout of this mission included “504,795 cannabis plants” being pulverized. These ranchers were paid a little measure of cash, short of what one U.S. penny for each harvest that was wrecked on their territory (Kuzmarov, 2008). Columnist Richard Boyle remarked, “The United States is currently pursuing two wars in Vietnam; one against the Vietcong and the other against Mary Jane (Sanders, 1973).” With the steady weight from the military to chop down cannabis smoking in Vietnam, a significant number of the GI’s discovered the danger of smoking maryjane much excessively extraordinary, making it impossible to proceed with their utilization. As a result of this crackdown, officers found an alternate methods for getting high in this remote world, and its name was heroin. The heroin of the region was so promptly accessible and unadulterated that the men could carefully shroud the heroin in their cigarettes and smoke it with no segregating scent of any sort, enabling it to be effectively concealed (Kutler, 1996). As the 1970’s gradually came, heroin enslavement quickly expanded all through all positions of the military in Vietnam. An expected 450,000 U.S. military powers in Vietnam were allegedly at present utilizing or had striven out of the blue heroin. As a result of the strict authorization of maryjane, it actually thumped out the greater part of the opposition that heroin had. Heroin was all the more promptly accessible tha>