Families, in addition to being one of the primary forces of socialization, is and important institution. The primary purpose of the family has been, historically, the transmission of wealth, economic stability and the production of the next generation of citizens. In recent years, however, attitudes toward family in the US has shifted to being focused on providing emotional and psychological support and care for all members of the family. As this function has shifted, so too has the shape of families begun to change. We have moved from living primarily in extended families, to a brief period where the nuclear family was idealized, into a contemporary era where diverse family forms are necessary.
Prior to the industrial revolution, families lives primarily in extended family, or extended kinship networks or strings of relationships between people related by blood. This changed during the industrial revolution, beginning with men leaving home to work in factories, separating them from their families (about 1890). This rusted in increasing ideals about the gendered division of labor, which separates male and female labor into public and private realms, respectively. In rural areas, children were an economic asset, but after families moved to the cities they became an economic liability. Families had to be smaller because of finances, housing, and similar factors. Also, industrialization in the early 20th century created a need for more education, so children spent more time in school and thus, more years at home. About this time, some forms of birth control were used to allow couples to limit the number of children so the birth rate plummeted.
However, the idea of nuclear family, mom, dad and kids as a single unit, had little historical precedent. Initially, it was widely regarded as a symptom of family decline and faced challenges related to childcare, elder care and other problems associated with its isolation from kinship networks. Then during WW II, women entered the workplace in record numbers. After the war, government officials, concerned with low U.S. birthrates and increasing competition from women in the workplace, implemented programs to encourage both consumer spending and childbirth, resulting in the “baby boom” as well as increases in cost of living. The concept of a nuclear family emerged in the 1950’s and quickly captured the popular imagination.
Education, recreation, and caring for the elderly increasingly shifted from family duties to institutional jobs, though remained heavily gendered into contemporary times. During the 60’s and 70’s social movements to challenge notions of family, women’s place and racial stratification arose, resulting in new ideas about family and increases in complex family forms. Economic conditions in the 1980’s resulted in further changes, including increasing the overall population of married women who hold paid employment outside the home to over 50%.
Contemporary family forms are diverse both nationally and globally. Single parent, blended, and gay/lesbian families make up significant portions of modern American families.
Family is socially constructed, meaning that what “counts” as a family depends on the social context, the time and place in which it exists. Social constructions are agreed upon social conventions that can change from time to time and place to place. The nature of these constructions are based on the advantages that they provide due to the structure of the society in which they exist. For this discussion we will talk about the social construction of families.
black and white photo of large extended family on porch of houseThe structure and function of families has changed over time. Historically, extended families that functioned primarily as economic units were most common. During and after the Industrial revolution nuclear families with two parents and children and a gendered division of labor provided the best structure of workers. Contemporary families have shifted to focus on functions and not on form.
To begin, compare and contrast historic extended families, mid-century nuclear families and one other family form, by answering the following questions:
What are the advantages and disadvantages of a historic extended family structure?
What are the advantages and disadvantages of a nuclear family structure?
What other family structures exist today and what might some advantages and disadvantages of these are?
Select one of the family forms you discussed and explain how the norms of society in which it existed/exists result in these advantages and disadvantages.
The Celtic Christianity. Christianity presumably came to Britain with the Roman armies, the spread of the confidence being positively helped by the foundation of the Roman Empire, bringing about the steady change of the different Celtic individuals to the Christian confidence. Consequently a solid and vivacious Celtic church existed in Britain and Ireland before the Germanic intrusions occurred. We realize that there were British religious administrators at chapel boards at Arles, 314 AD, and Rimini, 359 AD. There are records of the afflictions of Alban, Julius and Aaron. Such extraordinary quantities of Celts were changed over that to be British and Celtic intended to be Christian. After the armies left there seem to have been somewhere in the range of 150 long stretches of fighting in Britain between the attacking Anglo-Saxons and the first Celtic occupants. So when Augustine originated from Rome in 596 he came into the contention between the Anglo-Saxon victors and an indigenous church among an aggrieved people. [literally from the site!] The Celtic Christianity is the primary type of Christianity that has been honed in England and Ireland. (around 400 AD) In the fourth century, it extremely settled itself by blending the trademark Celtic highlights with the religion. Once the Romans pulled back themselves, the Roman and Celtic Christianity began to develop in an unexpected way. In the fifth and sixth century a considerable measure of Celts were changed over as a result of evangelists. In Ireland, the Celtic Christianity is described by its groups. Celtic Christianity is the most punctual type of Christianity in Great Britain and Ireland. Christianity achieved Britain in the second century, amid the Roman occupation. It was not until the second 50% of the fourth century that the trademark Celtic components were blended appropriately with whatever is left of the congregation. After the Romans had pulled back from Britain, the Roman and Celtic Christianity had been separated for right around 200 years and had the chance to grow independently. The fifth and sixth century were set apart by far reaching transformations by the landing of numerous ministers. Ireland built up a congregation structure which was completely in view of religious communities. Since there existed no focal expert of the Celtic church, there were numerous varieties happening in ascetic standards and the principles of the sacrament. The Roman and the Celtic church met again in 597, when Augustine of Canterbury drove an assignment of ministries to Britain. This gathering demonstrated that there were numerous contrasts between the perspectives of the two developments. The enormous distinction between the Roman Catholic and Celtic Christianity prompted the Synod of Whitby in 664. The choices that were taken, were negative to the Celts. The Irish religious tenets were supplanted with the principles of the Benedictines and strict adherence to Catholic teaching was authorized. The pronouncement of Whitby had no quick impact. Particularly Devon, Cornwall and Scotland kept on challenging the new type of Christianity. This brought about the nearness of a Celtic cloister on Iona (Scotland) until the thirteenth century, which at that point was supplanted by a Benedictine nunnery. Be that as it may, Christianity in Britain started to adjust progressively to the Roman Catholicism. In spite of this, Celtic Christianity was passed on orally and there have dependably remained components of the previous confidence in British and Irish houses of worship. After the Reformation of the sixteenth century the Celtic convention got offered increasingly opposition. Perusing the petitions boisterously was disheartened and even illegal, in light of the fact that it was felt this was an agnostic and polytheistic beginning. In Scotland a blend of religious abuse and the good country clearances prompted the debilitating of the Celtic culture. In any case, even this did not prompt the finish of the Celtic Christianity. In the mid twentieth century Celtic supplications were gathered in Gaelic and recorded because of a resurgence of enthusiasm for Celtic writing. Halfway on account of this there was a developing enthusiasm for Celtic Christianity. Individuals challenged the custom of “agnostic” components and more individuals started to welcome the religion. Rather than disposing of the old Celtic images from the religious life, the Christian ministers assumed control numerous traditions of the agnostic confidence. A portion of these customs are still unmistakably found in the Christian confidence, and not simply in Great Britain and Ireland. The old divine beings were to a great extent held in respect, just now they were delineated as holy people. The most well known case is Brighid, who turned into a holy person with a similar name after the landing of Christianity. Jesus, the child of God, replaced the sun god Lugh. His image, the cross, was added to the sun oriented circle as was the image that we know today as the Celtic cross Iona. Numerous consecrated locales were changed over to Christian spots of noteworthiness. Lindisfarne, for instance, was where the Celts worshiped their divine beings in the outdoors. On the island a congregation was manufactured which wound up imperative later. The faith in the Otherworld, guaranteed that in nearly the entire Christian world, the contact between individuals did not stop after death, but rather proceeded as petitions and musings. Obviously there likewise are contrasts between the Celtic Christianity and Roman Catholicism. The Celtic Christian religion depends on littler gatherings of adherents than the Roman Catholics, who translate their own religion. This is somewhat a direct result of the division of Celtic culture: the significance of a family or tribe was considerably bigger than the significance of a nation or a lord. Another reason is that they couldn’t care less that much about correct principles however need to admit their confidence in their own particular manner. The way that Celtic Christianity is diverse to Roman Catholicism in a few different ways, is to a great extent because of the dialect boundary and the remoteness of the territory. A standout amongst the most known contrasts with the Roman Catholicism is the assurance of the date of Easter. There are a few different ways to do this, and those ways have changed and refined as the centuries progressed. After the foundation of the Celtic Church, there was where there was moderately little contact with whatever is left of Europe and when that contact was recharged, it created the impression that the Roman Catholic Church had received an alternate framework. A few Celtic areas honed this framework, while others kept up the old framework. There is a striking contrast in the origination of the first sin. The Catholic holy person Augustine contended that the first sin was caused by Adam and Eve eating the prohibited natural product in Paradise, and that this wrongdoing was transmitted to their posterity and subsequently all individuals. To dispose of the first sin, individuals needed to live by the Bible and satisfy God’s will. The Celtic priest Pelagius, be that as it may, guaranteed that this unique sin did not exist and that a decent and perfect life would be sufficient to go to paradise. A last distinction is the experience of God by the Celtic Christians. As per them, God isn’t isolated from his creation and the significant case of this is Jesus. Devotees see the universe as a body, from which God is the head, and the universe the body. The universe can play out God’s will, much the same as the mind instructs the fingers. The head participates in the distress and the delight of the body. God is additionally observed as bisexual: both male and female, while Roman Catholicism depicts God as male. That the Catholic convention does this, can be clarified by the idea of the first sin. Eve, Adam’s significant other, was the primary who tasted of the apple and she was the person who urged him to eat of the natural product. As Adam didn’t cull the apple himself, however this was energized by Eve, she was more ‘corrupt’ than her better half. Mostly as a result of this thought, the part of the lady in the congregation was kept little. She couldn’t satisfy holy undertakings like ministers and religious administrators did. The disposition of the Celtic Christianity was considerably milder towards ladies, for example, that Irish ladies could be ministers and there was no abstinence. Soon after the ingestion of Ireland in 1172 the Irish Celtic church was set under the Roman church and from that point there were just men who played out the sacrosanct errands. The chastity was presented not long after. Constantine I (the Great). Constantine the Great was the child of Constantius Chlorus and Helena, and was a Roman sovereign from 306 until his passing in 337 AD. He is best known for being the main Christian Roman ruler. He issued the Edict of Milan (313), which announced religious toleration all through the domain. As the beneficiary when his dad passed on, he before long claimed Gaul, Spain and Britain. After a few triumphs over Maxentius he likewise turned into the ace of Italy. In 323 he slaughtered his adversary Linius in fight, and wound up sole master of the entire Roman World. A ton of books have been composed about the subject. A case of one of those is Constantine, the Miracle of the Flaming Cross by Frank G. Butcher. As indicated by the stories, Constantine saw a cross in the sky the night prior to his fight with Maxentius. Went with it were the lines “By this thou shalt win.” Along with the backings of his mom Helena, this ought to have roused Constantine to be changed over to the Christian conviction. The supernatural occurrence has been shielded by a few Roman-Catholic students of history, however it can’t stand the trial of basic examination. It is conceivable that Constantine has seen something in the skies – Constantine was persuaded Christianity was on the ascent – however his transformation was more a difference in arrangement than of character. He held the workplace and title of Pontifex Maximus until the simple last, a title which these days is saved for the pope as it is speaks to the most elevated position in the Church. Moreover, he wasn’t absolved until the point when he believed he was going to kick the bucket. This obviously so that if there were a Heaven, he would go there, however he didn’t need to carry on with a simply Christian life before that. Constantine kept Pagans in the most astounding positions in his environment, and prohibited everything which may seem, by all accounts, to be an assault of Christianity against Paganism. This is>