Choose one of the following topics: 1) The narratives surrounding the birth of Jesus are quite different from our common notions of the nativity. Compare and contrast the nativity scenes in the gospel of Matthew (2.1-23) and Luke (2.1-20). Propose a reason for the differences between the accounts. What are the different theological points being made by the inclusion of different material? 2) In the first 3 chapters of the Book of Romans, Paul makes an argument for the universal nature of sin based on “natural law.” What is natural law? What examples does Paul use? What is the structure of Paul’s argument? Do you find it convincing? These are some good questions to answer but there are certainly others that would be relevant. 3) The gospel of Mark has a number of possible endings. Identify the possible endings to Mark and make an argument for which of these endings should be the ending included in the New Testament.
Travis Hirschi enormously affected the field of criminology. His impact was definitely felt the most in the subject of control hypothesis. Hirschi’s speculations were dependably evidently expressed in layman’s terms so everyone could plainly comprehend them. Hirschi’s first hypothesis: Social Bonds and Delinquency, expresses that misconduct emerges when social bonds are powerless or missing. This hypothesis tested Merton’s strain hypothesis and Sutherland’s differential affiliation hypothesis. The inquiry that is asked by these two hypotheses is for what reason individuals are spurred to carry out wrongdoings. Merton’s expressed that it was the blockage of objectives that pushed people to carry out wrongdoing. Sutherland’s hypothesis said that young people are taken in by freak culture and they take in and receive criminal conduct from everyone around him. Hirshi, then again took the way less taken. For Hirshi, the inquiry that his hypothesis tried to answer was: Why don’t individuals infringe upon the law? Hirschi needed to recognize the idea of the social controls that decide when wrongdoing happens. Hirschi called these social controls, “Social Bonds” (Lilly, Cullen, and Ball, 2011) Hirschi’s social bond hypothesis focused on four control factors that gave reason in the matter of why individuals don’t overstep the law, with each speaking to a noteworthy social bond. The bonds are: Attachment, duty, inclusion, and conviction. Connection alludes to the passionate closeness that youths have with grown-ups, good examples, and above all guardians. “Affectional Identification,” implying that the young tries to be more similar to their folks or good examples has a substantial influence in this bond (Lilly, Cullen, and Ball, 2011). On the off chance that the grown-ups in their life are sans wrongdoing, the young will probably take after a similar straight and limited way. There is additionally a feeling that guardians comprehend what their youngsters are doing and where they are. This bond fortifies each time that there is collaboration between the two gatherings as the communication is for the most part on an individual premise. Because of these things, guardians have a type of aberrant control. The roundabout control works in light of the fact that their connection to their folks makes them mentally present. The second bond is The Social Bond of Commitment. Duty includes the youths put in similarity. The adolescent does not have any desire to blow their odds of having an awesome and brilliant future by accomplishing something that they shouldn’t do. This is the normal proportion of cost and advantage that is seen in other criminological hypotheses and all through life. The inquiry it asks is; does going astray from the social standards to accomplish certain methods exceed the possibly incredible misfortunes that are additionally on the table. With the end goal for this to be a powerful bond, people must know and interface the abnormality and reward and settle on a choice in light of their own results. Strain hypothesis additionally utilizes the cost and advantage proportion; anyway it expresses that having high desires is the thing that prompts abnormality (Lilly, Cullen, and Ball, 2011). Hirschi again expressed the inverse was valid; “Genuine yearnings gave a stake in similarity that attached the person to the customary social request” (Lilly, Cullen, and Ball, 2011). The third social bond is The Social Bond of Involvement. Contribution is an approach to avoid and deny access to criminal activities and degenerate conduct through association in exercises. On the off chance that you are in school throughout the day or at work, one would be considerably less prone to carry out a wrongdoing. This bond hypothesis is in its own particular manner paying respect to the familiar axiom, “sit still hands are the demon’s workshop” (Lilly, Cullen, and Ball, 2011). The fourth and last social bond is The Social Bond of Belief. Individuals need endorsement of others, so their activities have a tendency to mirror the societal standards that are believed to be affirmed activities. Conviction is the degree that adolescents grasp the ethical legitimacy of the law and different standards. Acclimating people comply with the law since it is viewed as a honest to goodness and regarded demand to them. Ronald Akers expressed that “People irritate in light of the fact that they are associated to grasp criminal social convictions” (Lilly, Cullen, and Ball, 2011). Where Hirschi expressed that one doesn’t have to figure out how to be a criminal since all people are delight looking for creatures and wrongdoing is anything but difficult to carry out (Lilly, Cullen, and Ball, 2011). The reason for this paper is to convey light to the impacts social bonds have on the probability to submit reprobate exercises. Connection Theories depend on the view that people want to be acknowledged by others. This is normally something to be thankful for; in any case, it can likewise assist a reprobate mentality with forming. The development of solid bonds between the grown-up figure(s) in a youths life encourages put a stop to reprobate exercises previously they even happen. Be that as it may, those with shaky connection to guardians have issues with enthusiastic direction and motivation control following up on quick rewards to the detriment of long haul objectives (Lac, Crano, Berger, and Alvaro, 2013). Connection additionally applies to peers. Companion connection was decidedly connected with confidence, discretion, and positive thinking, however these factors had a tendency to be all the more emphatically connected with parental connection. Be that as it may, deficient attaching to a parental figure may show a hazardous move to depending on peers occupied with exercises outside of the standards of society (Lac, Crano, Berger, and Alvaro, 2013). These relationship among peers that turn out badly prompt medication utilize and drinking and exercises, for example, that. In an investigation eight inquiries were requested that all together gauge what number of his or companions smoked cigarettes, utilized smokeless tobacco, drank mixed refreshments, got alcoholic, smoked pot, utilized rocks, utilized powder cocaine, and utilized heroin. The outcomes demonstrated that 84 percent of the test bunches companions utilizes or have attempted these substances (De Li). Under the Commitment bond, there is a basic presumption that there isn’t significantly more time left in the demonstration, venture or whatever an individual is endeavoring to achieve when measuring the upsides and downsides of a degenerate demonstration considered. This is the reason there truly is a weight to settle on a choice and make the correct one as per the conditions. Contribution in school is additionally an imperative type of duty since it likewise goes about as a stake in congruity which enables root to individuals into social similarity (Krohn and Massey). Individuals who don’t hold solid convictions in traditional qualities have nothing holding them to the bond and are in this manner more inclined to confer freak acts. On the off chance that any at least one of the four social bonds are debilitated or separated, the odds of reprobate conduct increments fundamentally (Krohn and Massey). Notwithstanding when Social Bonds come up short, desistance is dependably a possibility for the individuals who need to get back on the straight and limited way. Desistance is the demonstration of stopping affronting conduct. One different ways that has been found to be powerful is the improvement of a connection cling to a spouse or husband or getting a steady calling. Marriage is anyway observed to be the best. Men who stopped from criminal exercises were occupied with organized schedules, they were socially attached to spouses, kids and critical others. They figured out how to draw consolation, assets, and social help from their connections. The effect of social ties, life occasions, and socialization encounters was underlined to stopping guilty parties with the end goal for them to genuinely recognize what they will lose on the off chance that they affront once more (Doherty). Concerning marriage, those with low restraint have considerably more space to change with the assistance of a stable solid marriage than those with high discretion. The observing element that joins the marriage domain assumes an extensive part in that (Doherty). The observing variable is such a vital one particularly when one is growing up because of the way that it avoids misconduct and diminishes the possibility that people will go amiss when there is no checking happening. An examination found that low observing created wrongdoing, despite the fact that it was by implication through low discretion and animosity. This is because of the immature getting a truly clear impression that the guardians don’t generally think about what their child is doing. What’s more, the attitude that the vast majority would almost certainly draw from that is, “Whether they couldn’t care less, at that point for what reason should I?” (Gault-Sherman, 2012). That outlook is connected the connection bond. They endeavor to resemble their folks and duplicating is the best type of sweet talk. At the point when delinquents swing to wrongdoing, it is generally in light of the fact that that they feel that there is no other method to satisfy their requirements at the present time. In any case, where it counts it is because of the way that their folks raised them, their connections to individuals, their inclusion in additional exercises, things that they’ve submitted or not conferred time to and their very own arrangement of convictions that they hold dear to themselves. In the Attachment hypothesis, the result of the juvenile is to a great extent influenced by how their folks raised them, and how the other essential grown-up good examples throughout their life treated them. Say for instance that consistently when a young man got back home from school, he is tormented by his dad, ignored by his mom, singled out by his kin and treated terribly by all. This wouldn’t positively affect that young man by any stretch of the imagination. This conduct will ingrain in him a distorted feeling of what’s alright because of affectional recognizable proof (Lilly, Cullen, and Ball, 2011). The young man may go to class the following day and spook another child to improve himself feel, to feel like he is emulating his dad’s example. This may appear like an effortlessly settled issue, however in actuality, it assuredly isn’t. There is a high possibility the kid all adult will take part in reprobate conduct, regardless of whether he isn’t captured. He will undoubtedly beat or potentially spook his children or spouses and treat individuals horribly. At the point when the reprobate activities aren’t kept to only the home, significantly more issues can emerge which can lead the person down a much more extreme descending>