Cancer, Genetics, and Genomics
Rachel comes from a family with a history of breast cancer on her mother’s side. Rachel’s mother died of breast cancer when she was very young. Rachel has two sisters, Lisa and Kristin. Rachel has remained close to Lisa, but she no longer has a relationship with Kristin. At a routine checkup, Rachel is told about the availability of genetic testing for identifying a predisposition to breast cancer. Her doctor recommends the test to Rachel given her family history. Rachel has the genetic testing done and finds that she has a mutated breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) gene. Her doctor tells her she is at high risk for developing breast and ovarian cancer. Rachel’s doctor suggests she ask her sisters to be tested also, so they can take the proper preventative measures. Rachel feels comfortable sharing this information with Lisa, but she has not spoken to Kristin in many years. Rachel tells her doctor that she is not in contact with Kristin and will not make an effort to tell her about BRCA1 and genetic testing. Rachel’s doctor feels confident that she can locate Kristin but worries about breaching patient confidentiality if she goes against Rachel’s wishes.
If you were Rachel’s healthcare provider, what would you do? Provide a rationale for your response. Include the pathological processes associated with breast cancer. What role does the BRCA1 gene contribute to managing the patient’s care? Describe and explain the role of the BRCA1 and breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) gene in contribution as a risk factor for breast cancer. Analyze the risk factors for breast cancer and possible interventions to preventive health management for women and men.
The Black Death which was caused by the considerable starvation that hit Europe was the reason for the fast change in the demography of the landmass, “A defining moment over the span of the medieval battles was the Black Death, which slaughtered on a normal, somewhere in the range of 30 and 40, of the European populace (Federici, 2004).” The loss of life was additionally quickened by the way that the lack of healthy sustenance caused by the starvation bargained the opposition of the general population against maladies (Federici, 2004). As the demise fundamentally influenced the laborers who gave work in the terrains of the honorability, their ability in work decreased because of the inevitable plausibility of confronting passing. The shortage of work that took after the Black Death therefore raised the wages of the laborers and bit by bit the living conditions (Federici, 2004). With the enhanced conditions for the workers, they rebelled against the administer of the honorability which was effective in a large portion of the nations. The political class turned the laborers against themselves as a counter-upheaval strategy by enabling the men to corrupt the worker ladies, a condition that set justification for witch hunts.0 Prior to the Black Death, the part of ladies in the general public was primarily doing conceptive work. The general public was sorted out in a male centric way, and the majority of the profitable work was finished by the guys in the general public (Federici, 2004). The work that was left for the ladies was predominantly doing housework in their lord’s home and others obligations, for example, turning fleece (Federici, 2004). The work done by the ladies was wage less and was seen as a social support of the general public. Be that as it may, their most vital part in the general public was conceiving an offspring. By their virtual demonstration of conceiving an offspring, they gave youngsters who might guarantee the coherence of the general public. The way toward conceiving an offspring was likewise observed as the procedure by which work was delivered by offering ascend to people who might work in the terrains of the respectability and as fighters in the armed force. After the Black Death, the part of ladies in the general public changed and totally took another turn. With the general population progressively moving to the city, a portion of the ladies were left as single parents to battle for their families (Federici, 2004). The way that the single ladies with families expected to accommodate their families combined with the shortage of work at exhibit, enabled the ladies to get to paying occupations because of the decrease of the sexual orientation division. The ladies were, consequently, ready to amass riches as opposed to the past circumstance before the Black Death (Federici, 2004). The roads through which ladies gained riches were additionally expanded by the sanctioning of prostitution in the European nations as a measure to battle demonstrations of homosexuality that ended up being a risk to the multiplication procedure (Federici, 2004). For the ladies, the procured status was great and even worth guarding. The witch chases were starting by the political classes that ruled Europe after the consequence of the Black Death (Federici, 2004). The staggering impacts that the scourge had caused to the economy of the landmass required the political classes to take matters that managed populace development and proliferation into their hands. The explanation behind the control of the propagation procedure was a because of the work emergency that followed with the occasion of the Black Death (Federici, 2004). In this manner, the conceptive wrongdoings that came in the method for populace development were vigorously rebuffed. Witches were, in this way, rebuffed as they were thought to anticipate to populace development by giving up kids to the villain, a conviction that led the witch chases. Besides, witches supposedly had the capacity to make hurt people, and the chases were additionally a defensive system. References>