Happy Henry’s car dealer sells an imported car called the EX123. once every three months, a shipment of the cars is made to Happy Henry’s. Emergency shipments can be made between these three-month intervals to resupply the cars when inventory falls short of demand. The emergency shipments require two weeks, and buyers are willing to wait this long for the cars, but will generally go elsewhere before the next three month shipment is due. From experience, it appears that the demand for EX123 over a three-month interval is normally distributed with mean of 60 and a variance of 36. the cost of holding an EX123 for one year is $500. emergency shipments cost $250 per car over and above normal shipping cost.
a. How many cars should they be purchasing every three months?
b. Repeat the calculations, assuming that excess demand are back ordered form one three-month period to the next. Assume a loss-of-goodwill cost of $150 for customers having to wait until the next three-month period and acost of $45 per customer for bookkeeping expenses.
c. Repeat the calculations, assuming that Happy Henry’s Is out of stock. The customer will purchase the car elsewhere. In this case assume that the car cost H. H. an average of $10000 and sell for an average of $14500. Ignore loss-of-goodwill costs.
An automotive warehouse stocks a variety of parts that are sold at the neighborhood stores. One particular part, a popular brand of ail filter, is purchased by the warehouse for $1 each. It is estimated that the cost of order processing and receipt is $110 per order. The company uses an inventory carrying charge based on a 28 percent annual interest rate. The mothly demand for the filter folows a normal distribution with mean 290 and a standart deviation 88. Order lead time is assumed to be five months. Assume that a filter is demanded when the warehouse is out of stock, then the demand is back ordered, and the cost assesed for each back ordered demand is $12.50. Determine the following quantities:
a. The optimal values of the order quantity and the reorder level.
b. The average annual cost of holding, set up, and stock out associated with this itemassuming that an optimal policy is used.
c. Evaluate the cost of uncertainty for this process. That is, compare the average annual cost you obtained in part b with the average annual cost that would be incurred if the lead time demand had zero variance.
d. Suppose that the stock out cost is replaced with Type I service objective of 95 percent. Find the optimal values of (Q,R) in this case.
Chapter 7: Service Operations Management
Customers arrive to a local bakery with an average time between arrivals of 6 minutes. However, there is quite a lot of variability in the customers’ arrivals, as one would expect in an unscheduled system. The single bakery server requires an amount of time having the exponential distribution with mean 4.55 minutes to serve customers (in the order in which they arrive). No customers leave without service.
a. Calculate the average utilization of the bakery server.
b. Calculate how long customers spend on average to complete their transactions at the bakery (time in queue plus service time). What percentage of that time is spent queuing?
c. How many customers are in the bakery on average?
d. Calculate the probability a customer will spend more than an hour at the bakery (time in queue plus service time).
e. What is the probability that there are fewer than two customers in the bakery?
f. Why are the estimated waits in this system so long? Are the assumptions behind them reasonable? Why or why not?
At the SuperSpeedy drive-through the time between consecutive customer arrrivals has a mean of 55 seconds and a standard deviation of 35 seconds. There are two servers who service time averages 70 seconds with a standard deviation of 15 seconds. Assume that no customers leave the drive-through after entry.
a. What is the utilization of the employees?
b. What is the average time a customer spends at the drive-through? What fraction of that is the waiting in the queue?
c. How many cars on average are in the drive-through lane (including those in service)?
d. What suggestions would you have for the drive-though to improve customer satisfaction?
Chapter 8: Push and Pull Production Control Systems: MRP and JIT
The Noname Computer Company builds a computer designated model ICU2. It imports the motherboard of the computer from Taiwan, but the company inserts thesockets for the chips and boards in its plant in Lubbock, Texas. Each computer requires a total of ninety 64K dynamic random access memory (DRAM) chips. Noname sells the computers with three add-in boards and two disk drives. The company purchases both the DRAM chips and the disk drives from an outside supplier.The product structure diagram for the ICU2 computer is given in Figure 8-6.Suppose that the forecasted demands for the computer for weeks 6 to II are 210, 170, 180, 125, 65, 350. The starting inventory of assembled computers inweek 6 will be 75, and the production manager anticipates returns of 30 in week 8 and 10 in week 10.
a. Determine the MPS for the computers
b. Determine the planned order release for the motherboards assuming a lot-forlotscheduling rule
c. Determine the schedule of outside orders for the disk drives.
The time-phased net requirements for the base assembly in a table lamp over the next six weeks are
Week 1 2 3 4 5 6
Requirements 350 210 150 430 210 250
The setup cost for the construction of the base assembly is $250, and the holding cost is $0.20 per assembly per week
a. What lot sizing do you obtain from the EOQ formula
b. Determine the lot sizes using the Silver-Meal heuristic
c. Determine the lot sizes using the least unit cost heuristic
d. Determine the lot sizes using part period balancing
e. Compare the holding and setup costs obtained over the six periods using the polices found in parts (a) through (d) with the cost of a lot-for-lot policy
Chapter 9: Operations Scheduling
The Southeastern Sports Company produces golf clubs on an assembly line in its plant in Marietta, Georgia. The final assembly of woods requires the eight operations given the following table.
Task Time required (min.) Immediate predecessors
1. Polish Shaft 12
2. Grind the shaft end 14
3. Polish club head 6
4. Imprint number 4 3
5. Connect wood to shaft 6 1,2,4
6. Place and secure connecting pin 3 5
7. Place glue on the other end of shaft 3 1
8. Set in grips and balance 12 6,7
a. Draw a network to represent the assembly operation.
b. What is the minimum cycle time that can be considered? Determine the balance that results from the ranked positional weight technique for this cycle time.
c. By experimentation, determine the minimum cycle time that can be achieved with a three-station balance
The assembly of a transistorized clock radio requires a total of 11 tasks. The task times and predecessor and relationships are given in the following table.
Task Time (seconds) Immediate predecessors
4 12 1,2
5 10 2
6 8 4
7 12 5
8 10 6
9 2 7
10 10 8,9
11 34 3,10
a. Develop a network for this assembly operation.
b. What is the minimum cycle time that could be considered for this operation? What is the minimum number of stations that could be used with this cycle time?
c. Using the ranked positional weight technique, determine the resulting balancing using a cycle time of 45 seconds.
d. Determine by eperimentation the minimum cycle time that results in a four-station balance.
e. What is the daily production rate for this product if the company adopts the balance you determined in part (c)? (Assume a six-hour day for your calculations). What would have to be done if the company wanted a higher rate of production?
Recording innovation in music Distributed: 23rd March, 2015 Last Edited: nineteenth May, 2017 Disclaimer: This paper has been put together by an understudy. This isn’t a case of the work composed by our expert article authors. You can see tests of our expert work here. Any feelings, discoveries, conclusions or proposals communicated in this material are those of the writers and don’t really mirror the perspectives of UK Essays. There have been sensational advances in music innovation; this has prompted the utilization of innovation in music being far more prominent and more extensive spread. There has been a sensational effect on musicianship. The music recording process is characterized as the demonstration of making, practicing the piece and physically influencing the account, through to doing last altering and acing to consummate the recording.The first music recording was made by Emile Berliner in 1884, this was recorded on a tin thwart covered cylinder,but from that point forward chronicle innovation has endlessly enhanced and altering systems have wound up less demanding and further developed. Through the progress from recording on wax chamber, simple tape, minimal circle and advanced download. These improvements have had numerous impacts, both positive and negative. There has been a considerable measure of discussion identified with these improvements. One of the primary regions in which recording innovation has influenced musicianship is that advances in recording innovation, along these lines the music that the end audience hears is solid ever what the artist initially played, as recording and altering innovation progresses, this is ending up more obvious, and altered tunes are floating further far from what the artist had performed. This thought has made a great deal of contention with the audience, as they are uncertain of what the craftsman is prepared to do, and what parts of the music have been fabricated misleadingly amid the altering stage. A few people contend that these advances are preference as it implies that the music that they tune in to is of a higher quality, and has a higher melodic exactness and is free of execution blunders, this is because of advances in advances, for example, pitch redress, which takes into account segments in the execution that are off key to be remedied, it likewise takes into account new areas of a tune to be composed by modifying the pitch of a solitary note, to give tests of a scope of different notes that would then be able to be masterminded to build new tunes for the piece. In a comparable group areas of music would now be able to be speeded up, backed off and traveled through time with a specific end goal to enable a specialists execution to be revised on the off chance that he or she drops out of time amid there execution. Both of these procedures are result of enhanced chronicle innovation, and a great deal of audience’s value that music is of a higher quality and more charming to tune in to. In the opposite there is a gathering of individuals that think these enhancements in innovation are a hindrance, because of the way that the last altered variant of a bit of music that the audience hears is frequently amazingly extraordinary to the first account that the artist really performed. It is likewise condemned that how anybody can turn into a pop star because of the expanded utilization of innovation, which implies that you don’t need to have any melodic information or ability as any blunders that are made would now be able to be revised. These assessments are reflected by Neko Case who says: I’m not a flawless note hitter either but rather I’m not going to cover it up with auto tune. Everyone utilizes it, as well. I once asked a studio fellow in Toronto, “What number of individuals don’t utilize auto tune?” and he stated, “You and Nelly Furtado are the main two individuals who’ve never utilized it in here.” This demonstrates in spite of individuals like Neko’s challenge against the utilization of these altering procedures they are utilized as a part of relatively every bit of music in any case. These advancements have additionally offered approach to new classes of PC based music. Advancements in recording innovation, recording proceeding onward to PC based frameworks has additionally to a great extent affected musicianship, as now that most account frameworks are PC based a ton of altering strategies are far more straightforward, and no alter or process is last, as all procedures can be fixed with the press of a catch, where as in more customary tape based chronicle frameworks fixing forms required a considerable measure of manual work, or may even be unachievable. Favorable position of this improvement is that music makers can try different things with various alters and procedures, keeping in mind the end goal to discover a result that they are happy with, in the event that they attempt any procedures that they are not content with the piece can without much of a stretch be returned to its previous state. At the point when conventional copying techniques where utilized altering included cutting the tape up, at that point staying it back together once more, this implies it requires much more ability than utilizing an advanced PC frameworks. When utilizing a customary tape framework fixing alters is undeniably troublesome, so makers might be demoralized from exploring different avenues regarding alters as it would require more work. In the other hand similar components have burdens, for example, the way that makers may make alters on a conventional framework that don’t sound very right, yet it might be unimaginable or insufficient to amend this, these little defects would add character to the piece, which would not occur when utilizing a cutting edge PC frameworks, as any little flaws can undoubtedly be evacuated with no trouble. These actualities about how recording and altering require far less expertise is clarified by David Wiliams and Peter Webster: At the point when PCs where extensive and sensitive and required prepared framework administrators, and when the main sound gadgets depended on confounded strategies to interface one component to another, you had to know an extraordinary arrangement about specialized things. This has all changed. This has offered approach to home chronicle which has empowered significantly more performers to have the capacity to create there claim pieces and turn out to be notable as home account gear is promptly accessible. As recording innovation has created sound nature of accounts has enhanced drastically. The underlying chronicles that where made on wax chambers had a ton of murmur and popping in the account, a low flag to commotion proportion, this made the music in the chronicle hard to make out and the account unpalatable to tune in to, where as in present day accounts these clamors have nearly been wiped out. A case of this change in sound characteristics is appeared in this news article with respect to new amplifier innovation: ‘new superior MEMS mouthpieces empower sensational headways in sound quality.’This has made tuning in to music unquestionably wonderful. Which has enhanced musicianship as it has made it less demanding for artists to tune in to others exhibitions and utilize them as motivations for there possess pieces. This has likewise enabled backing tracks to be created to enable artists to learn pieces which they can use to make there exhibitions sound more sensible when they are playing solo or in little gatherings. As recording innovation has created and new circulation mediums have wound up accessible, music has turned out to be more versatile, all the more broadly accessible, and when all is said in done a higher quality. This has enhanced musicianship, as it has made it less demanding for artists to tune in to others exhibitions, and utilize them to spur and motivate themselves. All in all this has enhanced musicianship however it has likewise had some negative impacts, for example, sound quality being lost, especially when music ended up computerized in 1982 with the arrival of the smaller discthat would supplant the vinyl record. Numerous individuals contended that the utilization of computerized information to speak to sound prompted a serious loss of value in the music, as a portion of the sound is lost because of pressure and advanced inspecting, which can give advanced accounts a dull tone contrasted with the brighter tone or simple chronicles, one individual that says this is Wayne Ellis Lee who says that: ‘vinyl has a hotter, more full stable while CD has an advanced, mechanical sound.’In the opposite an advanced minimal plate recording can be played an unbounded number of times without a misfortune in quality, however with a simple chronicle a portion of the quality is lost, and you get a recognizable murmur in the event that it is played over and again. Current mp3 innovation and web downloading of music likewise has both positive and negative impacts on musicianship. A negative impact is that because of web downloading and shared systems, it has turned into a great deal less demanding for people to acquire free duplicates of a craftsmen music wrongfully, this is extended by Mark Katz who says: ‘While there is nothing illicit about MP3 and P2P innovation in essence, it is unlawful to download or convey advanced documents of copyrighted chronicles without the authorization of the copyright holder.’These illicit downloads imply that the craftsman isn’t getting the sovereignties for there tune that they merit, and might be debilitated from creating there claim music since it isn’t fiscally achievable for them. At the point when music was conveyed on a physical medium it was more troublesome for audience members to get unlawful duplicates of an account. Buyers where additionally urged to buy a specialists item because of the way that they where acquiring a physical duplicate of the melody. Where with present day music downloading the audience gets a virtual record containing the music execution, the way that the music isn’t in a physical frame is additionally preference, as artists and audience members are currently ready to have substantially bigger music accumulations. The music retailers can offer a more extensive determination as they are not restricted by the physical space expected to store the music. In conclusion there have been numerous advances in recording innovation that have influenced musicianship, the greater part of these advancements have made in less demanding for artists to record, advertise and enhance there exhibitions, however these improvements have additionally created numerous drawbacks for both the artist and the audience.>