Sigmund Freud is often hailed as the father of psychoanalytical theory. His theory was the first to point to the influence of early childhood experiences. However, psychoanalytical theory has received a lot of criticism. Although theories are supposed to be objective and value-free, they are developed within a sociocultural and political context. For example, with historical perspective, it is possible to see that values within the Western Victorian era influenced Freud as he developed his theory. Another criticism is that many psychoanalytical concepts cannot be measured. For example, how do you measure the id, ego, and superego or the notion of unconscious conflicts? As a result, it is difficult to test the accuracy of these concepts using social science research methods.
It is important to critically evaluate theories for their practical use. For example, is it appropriate to use a theory when working with diverse populations or with populations different from those with whom the theory was normed (e.g., women, racial and ethnic minority groups, those who are economically disadvantaged)? Finally, are the assumptions of theories consistent with the values underlying the field? In this Discussion, you respond to some of these concerns.
THow is therapy with women different? In Resolution and inner conflict: An introduction to psychoanalytic therapy (pp. 217-236). Washington DC: American Psychological Association. • National Association of Social Workers. (2008). Code of ethics of the National Association of Social Workers. Retrieved from https://www.socialworkers.org/About/Ethics/Code-of-Ethics/Code-of-Ethics-English
Post: • Summarize the assumptions of Freud’s psychoanalytical theory in 2 to 3 sentences. Explain whether you believe it is appropriate to apply psychoanalytic theory to women and individuals from racial and ethnic minority groups. Explain whether you believe psychoanalytic theory is consistent with social work yak-16 and social work :ethics.
For a case of the primary component of this discussion, we can look to the Triumph of Death in the Camposanto at Pisa and Barna da Sierra’s frescoes in the Collegiata of San Gimignano, both refered to by Meiss as being common of aesthetic generation after the Black Death. Consequent grant has provided reason to feel ambiguous about Meiss’ hypothesis in light of the fact that the previous work is presently accepted to have been delivered in the 1330s (Smart, 1978) and the last is currently dated before 1348 (Van Os, 1981, 240). We should likewise consider that “a portion of the characteristics most normal for late Trecento painting are as of now present, as Meiss himself was the first to perceive, in the frescoes by Taddeo Gaddi in the Baroncelli Chapel” (Smart, 1978, 108). As this house of prayer was painted amid the years 1328-34, it shows an early change in style which likewise undermines Meiss’ postulation. The second component of the discussion concerns the adjustment in religious felt that happened because of the demolition of the Black Death. Norman remarks on the ubiquity of altarpieces delineating Saint Sebastian and the plain relationship of his sufferings with those of the casualties of torment (Norman, 1995, I, 187-195), yet there is additionally a subtler change in style spoken to by the Strozzi Altarpiece (1357). Meiss contended that depiction run of the mill of the mid fourteenth century harped on ‘well-known and all inclusive human experience’ (Meiss, 1951, 28) and that it had been prevailing by a more prominent accentuation upon the various leveled and narrow minded articulations of religious life, a height of the congregation and a confusion of the divinity. Giotto had spearheaded an imaginative style that was set apart by its practical portrayal of three-dimensional space, amicable utilization of shading and the making of a thoughtful reaction in the watcher. These highlights came to be normal for mid fourteenth painting, yet the Strozzi Altarpiece rejects the delineation of solid space, the figures ‘float’ and demonstrate an ‘absence of correct spatial situation’, the hues are ‘incoherent and uneasy’ and the composition makes a separating feeling of wonderment and puzzle, which Cole portrays as ‘abnormal’, ‘ghostly’, ‘stern and unforgiving’ and ‘standoffish’ (Cole, 1976, 134-6). Meiss contended that this style was a cognizant come back to the Byzantine affected craft of the earlier century (Meiss, 1951, 10) and that it is an impression of the religious accentuation upon blame and compensation that was a response to the Black Death. We may likewise see an enthusiasm for the emblematic as opposed to sensible portrayal of figures in the St John the Baptist Altarpiece (1370/80) by Giovanni del Biondo, where John stomps his adversary, Herod, underneath. John has the same somber look and there is a similar feeling of mental withdrawal that has been seen despite Christ in the Strozzi Altarpiece. Be that as it may, in Padua it is hard to find much confirmation for the dismissal of ‘authenticity’ in aesthetic style amid the second piece of the century. Altichiero’s design of Lupi’s funerary church in the Santo, a long way from endeavoring to separate the watcher, utilizes space and frame to attract the observer. His utilization of scene helps us to remember Lorenzetti and his figures are obviously roused by Giotto, particularly the ladies who accumulate close to the foot of the cross and grasp in a way reminiscent of Joachim and Anna and the blessed messengers who have the substance and articulation of those we find in the Arena Chapel. The scale, extent and outline of this fresco propose that this scene is being played out just past the dividers of the congregation and that we are seeing it as if through the curves of a loggia. The hues are amicable and repressed and there is an impression of closeness and reality. Altichiero’s style is more created and definite than before works, however its hidden purpose and soul owes much to his heritage from the prior fourteenth century. In Siena we likewise discover more opposing elucidations of the progressions that happened in the mid-century. Henk Van Os has portrayed the manner by which social changes following the Black Death prompted significant changes in support: the well off tip top lost a lot of their political influence and a class of nouveau riche jumped up who had less enthusiasm for aesthetic authorizing. A great part of the workmanship ended up imitative and moderate and was all the more frequently authorized in the areas encompassing Siena. In the city itself, just the affluent body of the Ospedale of Santa Maria della Scala, which had gotten numerous inheritances from casualties of the Black Death, kept appointing new altarpieces, one of which, by Bartolommeo Bulgarini, incorporated the Assumption of the Virgin, a work of art which Van Os accepts to show “full, grand figures, completely in the convention of Pietro Lorenzetti” (Van Os, 1981, 245). He contends that this work of art does not hint at the level, various leveled, magical outline which Meiss credited to it, however that it appears as a “plastically reasonable rendition” of the Assumption thus remains inside the prior customs of Sienese painting (Van Os, 1981, 245). Surely, the treatment of the Virgin and the utilization of expand gold impacts mirror the Sienese craftsmanship built up by Duccio and Simone Martini. Van Os presumes that progressions in creative generation after the Black Death were essentially because of various locales of support instead of changes in religious idea . The third part of the discussion concerns the subject of whether Meiss was on the right track to recommend that there was a solitary noteworthy move around 1348. Brilliant and Norman, for instance, contend that the Strozzi Altarpiece was not such a noteworthy takeoff as Meiss had contended on the grounds that the point of reference for such a delineation of Christ had been set in the Stefaneschi Altarpiece, painted by one of Giotto’s partners and dated late 1320s – mid 1330s (Smart, 1978, 122 and Norman, 1995, I, 184). Albeit numerous commentators concur that the “center long periods of the fourteenth century can be depicted as a time of reassessment ever of painting” (Smart, 1978, 107), there are critical contentions that that the development of aesthetic style experienced various stages, not only one sudden change connected to the Black Death. John White talks about two elaborate changes in the second 50% of the fourteenth century: the principal more moderate and less daring and the second in which investigation and analysis again went to the fore (White, 1993, 542). Cole additionally contends that, and in addition the adjustment amidst the century, there was another adjustment in style around 1375 and “a reestablished enthusiasm for both the frame and substance of Giotto’s specialty” (Cole, 1976, 140). Plainly, since Meiss’ unique hypothesis was proposed, much work has been finished by other craftsmanship students of history to challenge his thoughts. Despite the fact that the generation of craftsmanship in Florence in this period took on various structures from prior ones and the hypothesis this was because of the religious response incited by the Black Death can be given some trustworthiness, there is less confirmation of this pattern in Padua and Siena. It is in this manner my decision that the center piece of the century saw a concise set-back in imaginative undertaking, which was because of the destruction caused by the Black Death, yet that the fourteenth century was for the most part a time of progressive advancements expanding on crafted by the before experts. 1500 words>