SAFETY, EQUIPMENT, AND THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
1. You are working in the laboratory and break a glass test tube. Explain the procedure that should be followed.
You should discard broken glass in designated broken glass container labeled plastic or metal can with a sealing lid. Report all injuries to the instructor and to an appropriate medical professional
2. While in the laboratory, chemicals in a test tube shoot out the end of the test tube and into someone’s eyes. Explain the procedure that should be followed.
Identify the location of the eyewash fountain. In the event of a chemical splash to the eyes, flood both eyes for at least 15-30 minutes with water. Flush from the eye outward. Report all injuries to the instructor and to an appropriate medical professional.
3. A student enters the laboratory setting and is getting ready to set up. What preparations should be made?
Disinfect bench tops (or your tabletop work area) with a 10% bleach solution before you begin each lab, Keep pens and pencils, out of your mouth (and ears). No eating or open food containers in the laboratory,
Keep only necessary materials on the work surface area, Tie back hair that is longer than shoulder length, Wear glasses or goggles when working with dangerous chemicals, avoid dangling jewelry that might accidentally get caught on the lip of a chemical container or other piece of equipment. Avoid dangling and loose clothing, and, if necessary, roll up your sleeves.
4. A student spills chemicals on his or her skin. Explain the procedure that should be followed.
Rinse any spills on the skin immediately with continuously running water and soap. In the laboratory, notify your instructor of the situation.
5. Acid is spilled onto the workspace. Explain the procedure that should be followed.
Do not pour solutions down the sink unless instructed. Use special clean-up kits for surface areas (other than skin)
6. List three things than one can do to protect oneself from contamination/injury in the laboratory.
Wear protective (closed-toe), non-cloth shoes in case of spills or broken glass.
Wear glasses or goggles when working with dangerous chemicals.
After completing the lab, clean your work area and wash your hands.
a. Describe the equipment and explain the function of each of the following: sharps container
A sharp is any item that has corners, edges, or projections capable of cutting or piercing the skin.
A round container with a pouring indentation that is used for holding various kinds of liquids.
c. mortar and pestle
Heavy-duty glass or ceramic ware used to grind specimens and chemicals to a fine consistency.
7. Describe how to properly dispose of a sharps.
Carefully dispose of the sharp in the designated labeled container.
8. List and describe the steps in preventing the transmission of a pathogen.
Food: Microorganisms need nutrients to grow – specifically, carbohydrates and proteins. These are found in potentially hazardous foods such as meat, poultry, dairy products and eggs.
Acidity: The pH scale ranges from 0.0 to 14.0. A pH between 0.0 and 6.9 is acidic, while a pH between a 7.1 and a 14.0 is alkaline. A pH of 7.0 is neutral. Microorganisms typically do not grow in alkaline foods, such as crackers, or highly acidic foods, such as lemons. They grow best in foods that have a neutral or slightly acidic pH (7.5 to 4.6). Unfortunately, the PH of most food falls into this range.
Temperature: Microorganisms grow well between temperatures of 41°F and 135°F (5°C and 57°C). This range is known as the temperature danger zone. However, microorganisms exposed to temperatures outside these ranges may not necessarily kill them. For example, refrigeration may only slow their growth.
Time: Microorganisms need sufficient time to grow. Given the right conditions, they are capable of doubling their populations every 20 minutes. Within four hours, microorganism populations can grow to levels high enough to make someone ill.
Oxygen: Some food borne microorganisms require oxygen to grow, while others grow when oxygen is absent. For example, cooked rice and baked potatoes have been associated with certain types of bacteria that grow without oxygen.
Moisture: Most microorganisms require moisture to grow. The amount of moisture available in food for this growth is called its water activity (aw). It is measured on a scale from 0.0 to 1.0, with water having a value of 1.0. Potentially hazardous food typically has a water activity value of .85 or higher.
9. List and describe the steps of the scientific method.
10. Imagine you are a tour guide for a major food science laboratory. Write a short script for the tour that summarizes what the scientists should (or shouldn’t) wear in the lab, the safety precautions they should take, their rules for cleanliness, and what they should do in case of an accident. Your script should contain at least ten of the rules/information from the lesson. (10 pts.)
11. How might the information regarding laboratory safety be useful to you, or how can you apply this knowledge to your everyday life as a non-scientist?
The information can be useful in a lot of situations even though we are not scientist there are always hazardous material everywhere we go. Following these procedure & safety tips translate to our everyday life as well.
12. You go out to your car in the morning on the way to work, turn the key, and nothing happens! Use the steps of the scientific method to explain how you would solve this problem.
You can observe if you left any of the car door open, or left any lights on inside of the car. You can experiment and try to jump start the car even if you don’t know if that’s the problem. And if all else fails you can call an expert let him know what you tried and the results of what you experimented with.