Module 1: CH nurses gather subjective data (i.e. windshield survey and interviewing key informants). Based on this portion of the assignment you will analyze your findings and provide a summary of the key community health issues for your community. Module 2: Next, you will obtain objective data (Demographic, Education, and Economic date, as well as Morbidly and Mortality rates, Health risk rates – obesity, alcohol use, seat belt use, etc.). After collection and analysis of the data, Community Health Nursing needs are determined by comparing their community findings to the larger community (city/county, state and nation). Base on those comparisons, you will develop two priority Community Health Nursing diagnoses. Module 3: Lastly, Community Health nurses develop interventions to address those priority health needs (Community Health Nursing Diagnosis) and indicate methods to evaluate the effectiveness of the interventions proposed.
Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy: History and Applications Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional academic writers. You can view samples of our professional work here. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays. Published: Tue, 21 Aug 2018 1.0 Introduction Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) relates to the study of the absorption of radiant energy commonly within the ultraviolet or possibly in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum by isolated atoms in the gaseous phase. Considering that, in Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, the analyte is introduced to the optical beam of the instrument as free atoms, all the likely rotational and vibrational energy levels are degenerate (of the same energy). Contrary to the absorption spectra of polyatomic chemical species (ions or molecules) in which there is often a multiplicity of feasible transitions corresponding to several rotational and vibrational energy levels superimposed on distinct electronic energy levels, the spectra of free atoms are characterized by merely a reasonably very few sharp absorbances (line spectra) which are often correlated with changes in electronic energy levels. The multitude of possible different energy levels accessible to polyatomic species leads to almost a continuum of possible transitions. As a result the spectra of ions (molecules) are comprised of somewhat broad bands which are caused by the partial resolution of several individual transitions. Hence, one feature of atomic spectra is their simpleness compared to the spectra of polyatomic species. 2.0 History of Atomic Spectroscopy The historical past associated with atomic spectroscopy can be directly linked to the study of daylight. In 1802, the German researcher Wollaston documented the existence of black colored regions (lines) within the spectrum of natural light. These kind of regions began to be referred to as Fraunhofer lines in honour of the scientist who actually invested most of his illustrious career understanding them. It had been implied, as early as 1820, these particular Fraunhofer lines resulted from absorption processes that took place within the sun’s environment. Kirchoff and Bunsen established that the standard yellowish light produced by sodium compounds, when positioned in a flame, seemed to be similar to the black colored “D” line in sun’s spectrum. Several scientific studies applying a very early spectrometer lead Kirchoff (1859) to report that virtually any substance which could emit light at a provided wavelength also can absorb light at that same exact wavelength. He was the very first researcher to discover that there’s a comparable relationship regarding the absorption spectrum as well as the emission spectrum of the very same element. Agricola in 1550 used the characteristic colors associated with fumes to “control” the whole process of smelting of ores. Talbot (1826) and Wheatstone (1835) claimed the fact that colors associated with flame and spark induced emissions were typical of distinct substances. The actual quantitative facets of atomic spectroscopy have been formulated merely within the past 60-70 years. The substitution of photoelectric devices pertaining to visual detection and also the advancement and commercialisation of equipment go back to the later part of 1930s. The creation of all these devices was made feasible not simply owing to continued advancement in the understanding of the principle makeup and behaviour of atoms but have also been reinforced by the growing realisation that the existence of minimal and trace quantities (low mg/kg) of specific elements can impact industrial processes substantially. Consequently, devices had been developed in response to technical and technological demands. Contemporary atomic spectroscopy could very well be divided ideally into 3 connected techniques based on the processes employed to generate, to be able to detect as well as determine the free atoms of analyte. While atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) calculates the amount of light absorbed by atoms of analyte, atomic emission and atomic fluorescence determine the amount of the radiation emitted by analyte atoms (although under distinct conditions) that have been promoted to increased energy levels (excited states). Atomic emission (AE) and atomic fluorescence (AF) vary basically in the procedures through which analyte atoms obtain the extra energy associated with their excited states; perhaps by means of collisional events (AE) or through the absorption of radiant energy (AF). Every one of these 3 spectroscopic techniques can certainly be classified as a trace technique (meaning both a higher level of sensitivity and also a high selectivity), can be pertinent to numerous elements, and yet relative to the other two, every individual technique presents specific benefits as well as drawbacks. Ever since the arrival of commercial atomic absorption spectrometry devices around the early 1960s, this specific technique has quickly obtained wide acceptance to the point where surveys of equipment available in scientific labs have implied, constantly, that an AAS instrument is actually the 4th or 5th most popular instrument (exceeded only by a balance, a pH meter, an ultra violet – visible spectrophotometer and quite possibly an HPLC). 3.0 Principles 3.1 Energy Transitions in Atoms Atomic absorption spectra usually are generated in the event that ground state atoms absorb energy originating from a radiation source. Atomic emission spectra tend to be generated if excited neutral atoms discharge energy upon coming back to the ground state or simply a reduced energy state. Absorption of a photon associated with the radiation will cause an exterior shell electron to jump to a greater energy level, switching the particular atom in to an excited state. The excited atom will certainly drop back again to a reduced energy state, liberating a photon during this process. Atoms absorb or discharge radiation of distinct wavelengths considering that the permitted energy levels of electrons in atoms are generally fixed (not arbitrary). The energy change of a typical transition involving 2 energy levels is proportional to your frequency of the absorbed radiation:>