Constitution of Medina

1. On the basis of the Constitution of Medina and the Pact of Umar, how did the early Islamic community understand its relationship with non-Muslims? Did this understanding change between the period of the Prophet and the Caliph Umar?

2. How does the anonymous account of the Mongol conquest of Baghdad differ from Ibn al-Athir’s account of the Tatars (Mongols)? What do these differences say about the effects of the Mongol conquests?

3. On the basis of Ibn Rushd’s “Introduction” and al-Ghazali’s “Deliverance from Error,” would al-Ghazali support or reject Ibn Rushd’s defense of reason? Why or Why not?
Part Two: Essay (
Answer one of the following. Your essay should be no longer than 600 words (use the word count function under “tools”). Make sure your essay has an introduction with a clear thesis or argument, a body which supports the thesis with evidence drawn from the readings, and a conclusion which summarizes your argument.

1. What explains the rapid rise of the Islamic community from an embattled minority during the life of the Prophet to a regional empire by the end of the Rightly Guided Caliphate (Rashidun Caliphate)?

2. Explain the multiple waves of immigration into the Middle East between the 11th and 13th centuries: how did they change the region politically, religiously, or culturally?

3. Explain revelation, inspiration, and reason as paths to the divine truth. How are they similar/





































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