The critical thinking question to be addressed: in 1910, the Earth passed through the tail of Halley’s Comet. The molecule cyanogen was discovered with spectroscopy of the comet. The lead paragraph from an article in the New York Times of 1910 February 8 is in the box to the right.
Cyanogen is a deadly poison.
1.What is cyanogen? Please do not repeat the sentence above. Describe its basic properties.
2.Why would cyanogen be found in a comet? How might it have formed in the comet?
3.A paragraph a bit lower in the article mentions the astronomer Camille Flammarion and his opinion that the comet could `snuff out all life on the planet’ (= Earth). Who was Flammarion and how would he arrive at this conclusion?
4. Assume the Earth did pass directly through the tail in1910. Estimate the amount of cyanogen in the tail and the amount that would be distributed on the Earth. Write down how you made your estimate.
5. Did Flammarion blow the impact out of proportion? Why or why not?
6. Choose one topic from current headlines that you deem is similar to the cyanogen scare. What is the topic, why is it similar, and what lessons are there between 1910 and today?
7. Summarize your results, in writing, in a short essay: about 3-4 paragraphs should be about the right length. Summarize the properties of cyanogen, why it would appear in a comet, how it may have formed, why Flammarion would expect life to `snuffed out’, and your estimate for the amount of cyanogen in the tail as well as the amount reaching the ground. Include a comment on Flammarion’s assessment.
Presentation The focal point of this network contemplate is to investigate the wellbeing disparities which influence a particular gathering inside Bromley people group. This gathering has been characterized as those misery with Parkinson’s infection, a degenerative condition that tends to influence a more established customer gathering and can likewise be related with complex restorative needs. This article will characterize and investigate the idea of imbalances in wellbeing, characterize the sickness advertisement its impacts on individuals as their families, and relate these to a network in the Kent territory served by Bromley NHS Trust. The other point of this paper is to propose arrangements and mediations which may address a portion of the wellbeing imbalances and difficulties presented by this specific condition and its predominance inside the network. The writing focuses to the particular medical issues and difficulties of this customer gathering, and there is government and administration writing which particularly addresses their requirements. Be that as it may, it shows up there is as yet a shortage between the necessities of customers, which are mind boggling and hard to address, and the level of arrangement in wellbeing and social consideration administrations, which keep on being under-resourced and not exactly preferably planned. Parkinson’s Disease Parkinson’s is a dynamic neurological illness which happens as the consequence of the loss of nerve cells in the substantia nigra in the mind (PDS, 2007). The absence of these cells results in an absence of dopamine, a substance that enables messages to be sent to the parts of the cerebrum that control development (PDS, 2007). At the point when around 80% of dopamine is lost, indications begin to create, and levels keep on diminishing after some time, making manifestations increment (PDS, 2007). Two proposed causes are hereditary disarranges and natural poisons (PDS, 2007), in spite of the fact that a scope of different affiliations keep on being investigated. No genuine reason is known, and there is no known fix, albeit a few prescriptions can intervene the course of the ailment and help in side effect control (PDS, 2007). Engine side effects of Parkinson’s are tremor, bradykinesia and firmness of muscles, while non-engine side effects incorporate rest unsettling influence, clogging, sadness and urinary earnestness (PDS, 2007). Exhaustion is another side effect (Lloyd, 1999). It is clear from this scope of indications that sufferers may require an expanding scope of wellbeing and social help administrations and mediations amid the movement of the sickness. One epidemiological audit puts the rate of Parkinson’s malady in the UK populace at 19 for each 1000 every year, with a lifetime commonness of 2 for each 1000 individuals (MacDonald et al, 2000). The Parkinson’s Disease Society (PDS, 2007) express that one of every 500 individuals in the UK experiences the sickness. This would propose an extensive weight on nearby wellbeing and social consideration benefits in any region. In any case, there is likewise the issue that such insights frequently just speak to a glimpse of a larger problem (MacDonald et al, 2000). There might be a more noteworthy number who have not yet been analyzed or who don’t get to administrations as are not tallied in reviews. The age scope of sufferers of Parkinson’s malady is 40-90 years, with the best extent in the 70-74 age gathering, and the following most elevated rate in the 74-79 age gathering (MacDonald et al, 2000). This is clearly an age-related condition. The Bromley Health Services NHS Trust gives an outpatient Parkinson’s facility kept running by Dr B Kessel as a feature of the elderly pharmaceutical directorate (www.bromleyhospitals.nhs.uk, 2007). There is additionally the Joint Allocation board which the elderly solution group add to in giving complex home consideration bundles. In this way, no doubt for this area, there is some authority Parkinson’s illness arrangement. In any case, there are no figures to portray the take-up and request on wellbeing and social administrations from Parkinson’s infection sufferers. For instance, the interest on network nursing administrations, social consideration administrations, nursing homes, self-restraint administrations, essential wellbeing administrations and drug store administrations. Parkinson’s ailment is normally treated by medication medicines which intend to review the loss of dopamine (Pentland, 1999). Levodopa-containing operators supplant dopamine inside the body, while dopamine agonists mirror the activity of dopamine (Pentland, 1999). Catalyst inhibitors can be utilized, which avert dopamine breakdown, and anticholinergics can diminish the activity of acetylcholine which can likewise enhance side effects (Pentland, 1999). There is progressing discussion and audit of the hazard advantage proportion of these medicines however they have been appeared to be powerful in restricting indications (PDS, 2007: Pentland, 1999). Other pharmacological intercessions might be used to diminish particular indications, for example, hypnotics for a sleeping disorder, antidepressants for affirmed wretchedness, and torment executioners and quinine for agony and muscle spasms (Pentland, 1999). Hoever, accomplishing and keeping up the right, compelling medication regimen as the condition advances can be dangerous for customer and medicinal group (Lloyd, 1999). Wellbeing Inequalities It was in 1998 that wellbeing imbalance decrease turned out to be express points of the NHS in the UK, with the distribution of A First Class Service (DH, 1998). From that point forward, disparities in wellbeing have stayed on government and wellbeing administration plans. The National Service Framework for Older People (DH, 2001) sets out various measures to address enter disparities in wellbeing experienced by the subject gathering worried in this article. The way that such models have must be set is proof of certifiable imbalances connected to these territories. In the first place, imbalances are connected to age. It has been demonstrated that in some wellbeing and social consideration administrations, more established individuals and their carers have been casualties of age-based segregation in access to administrations and accessibility of administrations (DH, 2001). The region here, Bromley Trust in Kent, does not publicize master Parkinson’s malady benefits expressly on their site, thus sufferers of this condition fall under the aegis of elderly consideration administrations and furthermore nervous system science administrations (trust ref). Be that as it may, resourcing for such administrations may not be ideal, with less assets maybe given to less chic territories of wellbeing need (DH, 2001), but instead to the more ‘trendy’ and topical regions, for example, youngsters’ and malignancy administrations. There are sure zones of need which could be seen as basic to more seasoned individuals’ administrations and particular to those with Parkinson’s sickness, for example, network gear (DH, 2001). Another particular imbalance for this customer assemble is access to palliative consideration administrations, with numerous palliative consideration benefits just accessible to malignancy sufferers (DH, 2001). Parkinson’s illness is a degenerative and at last terminal condition, and all things considered ought to be a characterizing condition for palliative consideration. Be that as it may, palliative consideration benefits in a few territories might be financed by disease philanthropies, for example, Macmillan Cancer care, which may represent a test. This prompts a strategy issue which must be tended to at approach administration level inside the neighborhood trusts. The weight on family and unpaid carers is extensive, and increments with the movement of the infection (Lloyd, 1999). This prompts additionally request on administrations due to carer-related diseases (Lloyd, 1999). Once more, unequal access to administrations, here dependent on the condition and the absence of help for those influenced by it, keeps on existing. The issue of disparity identified with ethnic minority or foundation (DH, 2001) may likewise be relevant here, as the area contains a scope of various minority ethnic gatherings. Be that as it may, the socioeconomics are not accessible to investigate the rates of Parkinson’s ailment over the distinctive ethnic minorities in the area. The writing highlights one particular frequency of wellbeing imbalance in connection to this ailment. It gives the idea that sufferers who are hospitalized don’t have opportune access to their drugs because of the confinements of ward adjusts and nursing schedules (Agnew, 2006). Another imbalance is in access to network care evaluations which give the serious levels of consideration and bolster fundamental as the sickness advances (Lloyd, 1999). Not exclusively do Parkinson’s malady sufferers experience the ill effects of a relative trouble in getting to and acquiring such evaluations, the appraisal gives just a fractional picture when investigating to what degree the wellbeing and social consideration needs of individuals with Parkinson’s are being surveyed (Lloyd, 1999). The appraisals are obviously overwhelmingly medicinal, neglecting to address the other scope of necessities, especially social and intense subject matters and regular living needs, for example, individual consideration (Lloyd, 1999). As these appraisals are for the most part not completed in the individual’s own home, they are insufficient in giving a genuine photo of the substances of the malady in individual cases (Lloyd, 1999).>