Metaphors used in civil engineering
Identify the metaphor you are analyzing. State which conceptual metaphor from the first Lakoff reading is the over-arching one under which your metaphor falls. Example: the depiction of Medicare as a labyrinth or spatial place that is extremely difficult to “navigate.” The conceptual metaphors that this falls under are: PROBLEMS ARE PHYSICAL IMPEDIMENTS and, more broadly, LIFE IS A JOURNEY. (If you don’t think yours fits one of the ones that Lakoff & Johnson put forth, you can identify your own, as I did above). • Provide the context from which this metaphor comes—e.g., in the healthcare example, the field has changed drastically in the past 40 years. This is where you begin to provide research that supports what you are saying about the context. There may not be any research that mentions the metaphor you’ve found specifically. • State how the metaphor relates to that context, how it “came out” of that surrounding history, environment. Provide research examples about the features or conditions of the context. E.g.—“The urban jungle” was used increasingly in the early 1980s—as a result of the conditions we saw in Unit Two about the downfall of New York City—of course we know it’s not literally a jungle, but that it is like a jungle in terms of the constant danger and stress. You would support that with facts and statistics about the city at the time. • Use quoted material to support your claims. That is the “hard data” that proves what you are saying. • Conclude, and in the conclusion it is always a good time to give the audience something further to think about.