A Catholic school is considering refurbishing the lighting system in its administration building. After initial investigation, the school procurement office has narrowed down the options to two.
- Option 1 is an Ergolight® system that costs $500,000 to purchase and install. • Option 2 is a conventional system that costs $100,000 to purchase and install. Both systems are expected to last for twenty years. • The energy and maintenance costs for Option 1 are $20,000 and $2,000, respectively. • The energy and maintenance costs for Option 2 are $50,000 and $10,000. Assume that all costs are to be paid at the end of the year, and the real discount rate is 4 percent. Create an Excel Spreadsheet (the spreadsheet is already completed and will be attached) in which you address the following:
- Which lighting system should the school select based on financial considerations? Use the LCC method to address this question. • What are the major sources of financing for capital projects?
Instrument of Injury Underlying Obstetrical Brachial Plexus Palsy Presentation Obstetrical Brachial Plexus Palsy (OBPP) is characterized as a limp paresis of a furthest point because of horrendous extending of the brachial plexus happening during childbirth, where the inactive scope of movement is more prominent than the dynamic (Evans-Jones et al. 2003: F185– F189). Obstetrical brachial plexus paralysis results from damage to the cervical roots C5-C8 and thoracic root T1 (Pollack et al. 2000: 236– 246). The event of Obstetrical brachial plexus wounds are accounted for in the therapeutic writing at a rate of 0.38 to 2.6 per thousand live births (S. M. Shenaq et al. 2005). To comprehend the system of damage causing OBPP it is important to have a principal anatomical information about brachial plexus. Five spinal nerve roots C5, C6, C7, C8 and T1 consolidate to frame brachial plexus. These five nerve roots join into 3 trunks over the clavicle, the upper trunk at the C5-C6 level, the center at C7 and the lower trunk at C8-T1. The lines end in 5 principle fringe nerves: the musculocutaneous, spiral, axillary, middle and ulnar nerves. The whole shoulder and the arm is provided by the brachial plexus that helps in furthest point work (Laurent et al. 1993: 197– 203). There is a ton of controvery with respect to the fundamental instrument of obstetrics brachial plexus damage that is a reason for later belligerent discussion (Andersen et al. 2006: 93). OBPP is caused by unnecessary footing to the brachial plexus amid conveyance, as in dominant part of the cases upper shoulder gets hindered by the mother’s pubic symphysis (bear dystocia). With the footing to the youngster’s head, the point between the neck and the shoulder is commandingly extended, overstretching the ipsilateral brachial plexus. The degree of damage can fluctuate from neurapraxia or axonotmesis to neurotmesis and separation of rootlets from the spinal line (Pondaag et al. 2004: 138– 144). A few investigations verify that in specific cases, brachial plexus wounds happen optional to bear dystocia that is related with high intrauterine powers, not footing wounds (S. M. Shenaq et al. 2005). Despite the fact that the principle speculations have been that of pressure (either immediate or circuitous caused by instruments, fingers or between the hard structures) or footing (Sever 1916: 541) a few creators recommended that disease or ischaemia is the reason, while others proposed postural in vitro causes, this view was fortified by the obvious fortuitous event of other inborn abnormalities (S. P. Kay 1998: 43– 50). The biomechanics of the span of the maternal pelvic and the fetal shoulder measure and their situation amid the conveyance decide the degree of damage to the brachial plexus (Zafeiriou and Psychogiou 2008: 235– 242). Likewise intrauterine variables, for example, anomalous intrauterine weights emerging from uterine irregularities causes obstetrical brachial plexus paralysis at the season of pregnancy (Gherman et al. 1999: 1303– 1307). A few creators have (ACKER et al. 1988: 389– 392) likewise talked about the conceivable reasons regarding why generally few OBPP occurs amid vaginal conveyances without shoulder dystocia; their examination moved the focal point of OBPP’s motivation, far from those powers connected by the clinicians towards the endogenous maternal propulsive powers. Both maternal expulsive powers and uterine constrictions together frame the common powers. obstetrical brachial plexus paralysis may occur in the event of cesarean segment (Jennett et al. 1992: 1673– 1677) or agent vaginal conveyance (Alexander et al. 2006: 885– 890) additionally because of compelling footing and control by the obstetrician. The hazard factors for brachial plexus paralyses might be isolated into four classes: neonatal (: Birth weight > 4000 gm,Macrosomia, Breech fetal position, Apgar score: (a) 1 min, (b) 5 min), maternal (Age, Body mass record, Gestational diabetes, Multiparity, Maternal pelvic life systems), work related elements (Duration of second phase of work, Labor administration: (an) acceptance of work; (b) oxytocin enlarge; (c) epidural absense of pain, Shoulder dystocia , Mode of conveyance: (a) vaginal; (b) vacuum or forceps) and Associated Injuries (Clavicular crack) (Zafeiriou and Psychogiou 2008: 235– 242). Brachial plexus damage can be ordered by seriousness : separation, break, neuroma, and neurapraxia (S. M. Shenaq et al. 1998: 527– 536). anatomical area: upper, middle of the road, lower, and aggregate plexus paralysis (Sandmire and DeMott 2000: 941– 942). Upper plexus paralysis includes C5, C6, and now and again C7. Additionally called Erb’s paralysis, it is the most well-known kind of brachial plexus damage (Gilbert and Abbott 1995). It presents with an adducted arm, which is inside pivoted at the shoulder. The wrist is flexed, and the fingers are broadened, bringing about the trademark ‘server’s tip’ act. Middle plexus paralysis, including C7 and once in a while C8 and T1, has been proposed by a couple of specialists (Zafeiriou and Psychogiou 2008: 235– 242). Lower plexus paralysis includes C8 and T1. Additionally called Klumpke loss of motion, it is extremely uncommon and represents <2% of all announced brachial plexus paralyses>2%>