- In what ways are Spain’s historical tensions over politics, region, and culture evident in the Madrid-Barça rivalry?
- Foer also describes FC Barcelona as “a bastion of healthy, nonviolent patriotism” that “just as easily…have become a cauldron of radicalism, violence, and grievances” (212, 199). What events have given FC Barcelona this unique identity?
- Lowe describes the Real Madrid-FC Barcelona rivalry as “symbiotic.” What does he mean by this and what examples from the readings support it?
Semantics is large category in English language with its scopes such as word meaning, sentence meaning uterrance meaning. However, due to my limited knowledge, the writer only concentrate on the study on the representational meaning. It is particularized at the 3 main kinds of the representational meaning including processes, participants and circumstances with their definitions and characteristics. 4. The method of the study With the desire of making English representational meaning clear and specific, my methods of the study are data collection from having discussion with supervisors, friends, reading materials ( text books, referenceâ€¦) and collecting typical examples. 5. Design of the study This study provides a clear organization consisting of three main parts that help an easy exploration and practical benefits gained for readers as well: Chapter one is the introduction including rationale, scope of the study, aims of the study, the method and design of the study; Chapter two is entiled development and divided into three parts: Part I is the theoretical background, Part II is the representational meaning including definitions and characteristics of its types and Part III is implication including the difficulties of the learners when using it and suggested sollution; Chapter three is conclusion, summarizing what have been discussed in the previous. 1. Theoritical Background 1.1. Semantics 1.1.1. Definition of semantics There are many authors who define semantics. Some of the most typical definitions listed as follows: Semantics is the systematic study of meaning in language. In other word, it is the study of how language organizes and expresses meaning. ( Nguyen Hoa, 2004) Semantics deals with the literal meaning of words and the meaning of the way they are combined, which taken together form the core of meaning or the starting point from – which the whole meaning of a particular utterance is constructed. (Lyons (1995: Xii)) 1.1.2. The approaches of semantics There are 3 main approaches of semantics including lexical semantics, formal semantics and cognitive semantics. 18.104.22.168. Lexical semantics Lexical semantics is a field which deals mainly with word meaning and relations between them. It covers various theories of the word structure, the diffferences and similarities in lexical semantic structure between different languages and relationship of word meaning to sentence meaning and syntax. 22.214.171.124. Formal semantics Formal semantics is called formal since it attempt to adapt analytical techniques from formal logic to the study of meaning. It is concerned with relation between expressions especially sentences which express propositions. The basic tenet of formal semantics is that it considers proposition as the meaning of the sentence, which is identified with the set of possible words and it is concerned with its truth condition. The main focus of formal semantics is on truth conditions, entailment, reference, denotation, contracdition model, inference, quantification. 126.96.36.199. Cognitive semantics: Cognitive semantics is seen as mapping from linguistic expression to cognitive structures and laguage is seen as part of the cognitive structure. The main tenets of the cognitive semantics can be summarised as follows: a) Meaning is conceptualisation in the cognitive model. More precisely, it involv>