What are the threats from cannabis cultivation/marijuana production in the United States?
Golding’s Lord Of The Flies is based on an island after the second world war. Through-out the novel, Golding treats the island as a microcosm of the war. Within this is microcosm, the island commences as a utopia but it is not until chapter 8 when it gradually evolves into a dystopia as the ultimate battle for jealousy and power breaks out. The modification and degradation in certain characters’ behaviour from their normal life of civilization makes chapter 8 key to Golding’s Lord Of The Flies’ . It is the main chapter in which democracy is demolished, savagery kicks in and the definitive chapter in which Simon has the ultimate encounter with the Lord Of The Flies. I will explore Golding’s use of symbolism, plot, imagery, language, Christian morals, setting, themes and story structure as well as the novel’s overall historical context to establish the fact that chapter 8 is the most significant chapter to the novel as a whole. This is the vital episode in which Ralph experiences difficulties dealing with ‘the beast.’ He acknowledges its existence and in doing so spreads fear amongst the other boys. This is illustrated when Ralph portrays the beast as having ‘teeth’ and ‘big black eyes.’ Ralph instantly decides that fighting the beast is not an option; leaving the boys with no alternative than to hide from the beast and live under its shadow. Ralph’s fear about the beast is conveyed in his own words for the preliminary time in chapter 8, expressing the chapter’s great magnitude and relevance. As evidenced in the above quotations, it is in chapter 8 that the beast is embellished and made to seem scarier than reality, again showing the chapter’s eloquence. This powerful section centres on Ralph’s pessimism which contributes to his poor management of the beast. He does not appreciate that the ‘littluns’ take him seriously and visualise the news as a sign for panic. Ralph explains, ‘I don’t think we’d ever fight a thing that size, honestly, you know. We’d talk, but we wouldn’t fight a tiger. We’d hide. Even Jack ‘ud’ hide.’ Ralph’s apathy is conveyed because he makes himself believe that his hopes are slim. From Ralph’s language, the reader and other characters become under the impression that the beast is huge and can not be fought. Here, the key notion which makes chapter 8 substantial is that Ralph injects pain and fear into the unstable community instead of calming them. Ralph’s priority is evacuating the island rather than confronting the beast. This is illustrated when Ralph says ‘As long as there’s light we’re brave enough. But then? And now that thing squats by the fire as though it didn’t want us to be rescued… So we can’t have a signal fire… We’re beaten.’ The reader comprehends the boys’ inability of coping with darkness because of their strong fear of the beast. Little do the boys know, that the beast is living inside them like a parasite which can not live on its own but is in need of a host to live in. This is momentous to chapter 8 because we learn that Ralph’s desire is not to stay on the island or integrate himself into the island in order to avoid mingling with the beast. Throughout chapter 8, the ‘conch’ acts as a symbol of authority and order. At the beginning of the chapter, ‘the conch glimmered among the trees.’ This is pivotal to chapter 8 because the glimmering of the conch confirms its importance and the way it stands out in nature, symbolises how right actions stand out from wrong actions. From the beginning of the book, the conch takes the place of civilization and democracy which are clearly two social aspects which the island lacks after the destruction of the conch. It is because of the conch’s destruction or in other words the destruction of authority, that degradation and an uncivilized atmosphere are the shocking result.>