Assume that you are the chief financial officer for your organization and that you are preparing the organization’s financial statement footnotes. As you prepare and gather corporate information supporting the financial practices, policies, and procedures in your company, you consider the importance of the following six questions. Choose three of the following six questions, and describe what type of information would be included in the footnotes to the financial statements, how that information would be stated, and the significance of that information to the user of the financial statement: What are the acceptable inventory valuation methods under U.S. GAAP? How does each affect the valuation of inventory and cost of goods sold? Explain the accounting principle of lower of cost or market and how it relates to the income statement. What do the ratios inventory turnover and days to sell inventory indicate to the financial statement users? Can an organization change its selected inventory method, and, if so, is there an effect on current net income or retained earnings? Why or why not? Compare and contrast depreciation, amortization, and depletion, giving an example of each. How does net book value on fixed assets differ from fair market value of fixed assets, and how do they relate to liquidation?
In John Durkin (2003’s) article Man and Machine: I wonder on the off chance that we can exist together, Durkin theorizes on the capacity of a conceivable conjunction among human and clever machine. The title of the exposition is misdirecting in that Durkin discusses machines existing with people however what he truly implies if whether man-made consciousness (AI) able machines and people can coincide. The idea of AI is charming and the likelihood that organic insight existing together with automated knowledge is tempting and the repercussions of such conjunction, or its choices, are significant. Shockingly Durkin’s primary sources are popular culture motion pictures and he bargains more with feelings of dread and doubt than the real probability of any conjunction or what shapes this may take. Durkin utilizes HAL 9000, a star of 2001: A Space Odyssey, from the motion picture adjustment of Clarke’s short story The Sentinel written in 1948 for instance of how machine insight can protect its very own advantages and damage people in self-preservation. In the motion picture the group of researchers endeavor to deactivate a conscious PC which reacts by executing those attempting to deactivate/slaughter it. This exposes inquiries on the privileges of wise creatures and what connection privileges of other knowledge ought to need to human insight. The motion picture AI: Artificial Intelligence is likewise utilized by Durkin as an idea where he repeats the account of the motion picture, calling attention to a shrewd machine can imitate human feelings to the point where people react as though the machine were one of our own. David, the primary character in the story, does not turn to brutality like HAL 9000, yet encounters human feelings (or imitations of) and acknowledges his dismissal by mankind. From this the subject of what rights smart creatures ought to have and in what capacity should moral guidelines be produced to treat AI. Since David is outwardly indistinct from a human kid, what are the characteristics that separate man and machine? What is human? People portray themselves from whatever remains of the regular world by knowledge. Generally people have positioned significance dependent on capacity to reason, with substances without the capacity to indicate insight that we perceive as being sub-par and people rank them all things considered in our chain of importance of life. It is alright to murder an apparently unintelligent creepy crawly however cries are heard when one slaughters a dolphin or elephant which people consider progressively smart. Insight is now and again observed as synonymous with awareness and consciousness is something that people appreciation and esteem. What precisely characterizes human insight? What do our minds have that machines can’t duplicate? A cerebrum is a natural piece of synthetic compounds and organic issue which is unfathomably better than all other known life for its unparalleled capacity to process data and help survival. Logical examinations on human sentiments, feelings and musings have possessed the capacity to delineate in the mind that are dynamic when we feel respond to fear, to delight and an assortment of different feelings. Feelings, when thought domain about the undetectable soul, are presently noticeable as electrochemical responses. In the event that we can segregate the compound parts and find electronic analogs machines will most likely experience similar feelings. To make AI one needs to locate the arrangement of working parameters the human cerebrum pursues and copy them in an electronic configuration. David, from the film AI, is such a machine. The programming of sentiments and feelings into AI combined with the advancement of humanoid bodies will start to blue the line among man and machine. An issue of insight The uncertainty of the conjunction of human knowledge and machine insight conjures an end product question of whether human knowledge and some other insight could gently exist together. In the event that a clever outsider species were found would people have the capacity to exist together with this species? Durkin takes note of that astute machines are thought by some to be a risk to human’s legitimate imposing business model of normal idea so it appears that the inquiry ought to be extended to the capacity of people to whether human insight and some other shrewd structures can exist together. The contrast between experiencing an additional earthbound knowledge and machine insight is that people would be the makers of the last kind. On the off chance that we are discussing conjunction of knowledge there is no motivation to believe that outsider, human and machine insight would be vastly different from each other. Durkin anyway centers around machine knowledge which doesn’t really mirror the genuine issues of existing together insight. Verifiable point of reference Each time human social orders have experienced other shrewd social orders there has constantly been strife. Take for example mankind’s history where civic establishments have experienced each other out of the blue. The gathering of European culture and Native American culture in North and South America this is the nearest simple we need to wise creatures finding other canny creatures. Despite the fact that the physical structure was the equivalent, the way of life were unique and both were careless in regards to the nearness of the other canny creatures until the experience. This gathering of savvy bunches finished in a debacle for the locals of the Americas with the Europeans misusing and overwhelming them. Very little survives from the Native culture in the Americas after European mastery. This example is rehashed since forever as one wise society rules one saw to be second rate. The general public commanded is frequently the innovatively second rate one. Despite the fact that this cooperation between smart social orders isn’t equivalent to people making machine knowledge it demonstrates what people social orders are equipped for with regards to managing other clever gatherings. Wellsprings of Conflict Clashes between gatherings of people have numerous causes. Religious contrasts, ideological contrasts and strife over assets are viewed as the significant explanations behind fighting. Wellsprings of contention for people and machine insight are more enthusiastically to stick point however they likely will be equivalent to human versus human clashes. On the off chance that machine knowledge can turn into a working societal gathering they will require assets much equivalent to people. Land, metals and vitality will all be fundamental for the capacity of the two gatherings and clashes could without much of a stretch emerge. This is all reliant on the possibility that machine knowledge will create to frame social orders and look for a status and significance of requirements equivalent to that of people. This is the thing that David from AI looks for however people don’t concede it to him as he looks for acknowledgment from a human family. Regardless of whether people will in the end is an inquiry that can’t be replied here. There is no room in this paper for hypothesis on potential philosophies and religions of machine knowledge. Anyway it is right around an assurance that these qualities in people will have clashes with the development of a human-like AI. Methods of concurrence Concurrence can take numerous structures. At the point when Durkin discusses conjunction he talks for the most part of a needy relationship where people are dependent on machines and machine insight for survival. He states … we won’t probably kill our smart machines since we would depend excessively on the choices that they give. Now the machines will be in successful control. This is thinking about just a single type of concurrence of machine and human insight and misrepresents the method of control. Durkin’s type of conjunction is a plausible one toward the starting stages in the advancement of AI. People will create machines to mechanize undertakings to free people from doing them. A case of that in this day and age is the improvement of spam email channels. This is programming that we as of now depend on however it may not be AI, the point it to create it to shrewdly deal with the mail and settle on choices dependent on rationale and thinking. A presence where AI is subservient to human insight has different degrees it is conceivable to program programming to be astute yet at the same time subservient and it is conceivable to just build up the AI to the point where it can even now be controlled. Another structure would be one of uniformity where people and machine insight exist together as equivalent accomplices. On the off chance that we are to expect that AI will keep on creating to the point where it copies human knowledge there will come a period where machine insight will look to escape from subservience and serve its very own advantages. As a shrewd element the machine will have personal responsibility and want to misbehave said interests.It is here that machine and man would experience the kinds of contention referenced beforehand as machines act to their greatest advantage to verify assets to address their issues. This circumstance could be a risky one with fighting being a plausibility between clashing vested parties. A war among man and canny machine could be mankind’s most noteworthy trial of survival and the outcome might be another kind of concurrence where man is the subservient one. Bringing forth AI With regards to the advancement of machine insight people will be the draftsmen of it. This implies is would be conceivable to make programming with specific particulars to help in shielding people from potential mischief. This would require making ââ‚¬ëœlaws’ that the AI would be unequipped for breaking. Commended sci-fi author Isaac Asimov made such laws in his books for his robots to pursue. These laws were meant to keep the robots from consistently hurting people or humankind however Asimov utilized them for the most part as a scholarly gadget and to demonstrate the conundrums and issues related with attempting to program such complex laws into machines. As both Clarke (1994) and Grand (2004) have brought up these laws have small bearing on real AI development. Excellent and Clarke both break down the likelihood of programming unbending guidelines into AI and come>