Review the Presidential Directive on Government Contracting found in the lessons area.
Why does the President want to reduce Cost-reimbursement contracts? Why is it preferred to use a Firm Fixed type contract? Who accepts the greatest risk under each type of contract? Why is competition favored over sole source?
The first African slaves arrived in Virginia, North America in 1619. As the plantations of the antebellum south flourished, the African slave trade gained momentum. (Slavery in the ante-bellum South). Between the 16 and 19th centuries, America had an estimated 12 million African slaves (Slavery in the United States). Enslavement of the African Americans formally commenced in the 1630s and 1640s. By 1740, colonial America had a fully developed slavery system in place, granting slave owners an absolute and tyrannical life-and-death authority over their slaves or ‘chattels’ and their children. (Slavery in the United States) Stripped of any identity or rights, enslaved black slaves were considered legal non-persons, except in the event of a crime committed (Slavery in the ante-bellum South). Documents and research on the slave era in the antebellum south are awash with horror stories of the brutal and inhuman treatment of slaves, particularly women. ( David Brion Davis and Eugene Genovese,- Slavery in the United States-Treatment). Considered ‘properties’ by their masters, enslaved black women endured continual physical and emotional abuse, sexual violations, torture, and sometimes even death. (Susanne Scholz ) This research paper takes up the issue of how rape in the American slavery system during the antebellum south affected the African American society, and attempts to answer the following questions: How sexual violence affected slave family life and their behavior? By the 1800s, slavery had percolated down mainly to the antebellum south (Africans in America). Whilst a majority of these slaves were designated as ‘field servants’ performing duties outside the house, a smaller percentage, particularly women were employed as domestics or ‘house servants’, mammies and surrogate mothers. Owners generally enforced their status as ‘property owners’ by callous methods (Africans in America). Many first person accounts (Harriet A Jacobs) and other data available, underscore the rampant sexual exploitation of African women slaves. In the absence of any safeguards, with laws granting owners sweeping powers over their slaves, these women in bondage were habitually ravished, harassed, sexually stalked and used as long term concubines not only by their masters, but by the owners’ families and friends as well. Slave men, for their part, were rendered powerless to challenge or intervene, as to do so would mean sure death or sale to distant plantations (Africans in America). Progeny or ‘mulattos’ resulting from such rapes were also considered slaves, unless freed by the owner. (Historian Eugene Genovese -Slavery in the United States). “As masters applied their stamp to the domestic life of the slave quarter, slaves struggled to maintain the integrity of their families. Slaveholders had no legal obligation to respect the sanctity of the slave’s marriage bed, and slave women- married or single – had no formal protection against their owners’ sexual advances. …Without legal protection and subject to the master’s whim, the slave family was always at risk.”(slavery in the united states – treatment & rapes of females ) However, in quite a few documented cases, enslaved black women worked as devoted loyal servants, as mammies and surrogate mothers for white children demonstrating the absence of oppression and bonds of affection that actually united the two races. Blassingame,* underlines the fact that slave parents tried to shield their young from the brutal realities of the plantation. They often dissuaded angry urges among the children, which generally arose after their first whipping, from seeking revenge or running away. Children often internalized the two contradictory behavior responses of their parents; one submissive in front of the owner, the other castigating their owner’s action in private. They understood that submissiveness was a way to avoid punishment, but the true behavior model emulated was the one they witnessed in private. The family was an important survival mechanism, for no matter how often the family was broken, it enabled the slave to survive on the plantation without becoming totally submissive to or dependent on the master. Slaves often retaliated, subtly or overtly, to their inhuman treatment. They resorted to destroying crops or disabling machinery, slowing down work. Many stole food, livestock and valuables. Some committed suicide or mutilated themselves to reduce their property value and some even murdered their masters, by the use of weapons or poison (Africans in America).>