In natural law ethics, nature and the natural processes of life are good while going against nature and natural human inclinations is bad.
According to Aristotle and his great Catholic commentator, Thomas Aquinas, there are four very basic natural human inclinations which are the good desires to (1) stay alive: (2) produce and care for a child; (3) learn the truth; (4) live amicably with others. In terms of morality, natural law says that our duties go along with these four natural inclinations.
In the late 1980s, a Long Island couple married and tried to have children but couldn’t so Maureen and Steven Kass turned to in vitro fertilization. For something like 9 years they kept trying but none of the fertilized eggs from Steven and Maureen ever came to the successful birth of a child. Finally, in their early 40s and still childless, Maureen and Steven decided to divorce. But then they faced a problem: What to do with the fertilized eggs still frozen in storage. Steven wanted the fertilized but frozen eggs destroyed as the contract they had signed said. Maureen wanted them saved for possible future implantation because she still wanted children and these frozen fertilized eggs were her only chance.
For this week’s discussion. answer ONLY TWO of the following three questions. Please answer the first question and then either one of the other following two:
 Do some research into the case of Maureen Kass vs. Steven Kass and answer the following (if you use a quote on the case, you must reference it and limit it to no more than 40 words and no more than one quote): What was and what was not natural or in keeping with our natural inclinations in this case of Maureen and Steven Kass and what difference does that make in terms of the moral questions at issue here? Who should have won this case and why based on natural law or natural inclinations? Are frozen fertilized eggs the property of anyone and if so whose and if not why not? How would the implantation of a fertilized egg in the womb change its status as property or person or what?
 Explain to a friend or someone you know the basics of natural law ethics as related to the four central natural inclinations of human beings. Tell the person how natural law ethics via John Locke also influenced the claims and wording of the U.S.’s Declaration of Independence (as noted in the eText) and ask them to explain their feelings about natural law ethics and how they influence this Declaration. What did they say? And then tell the person also that the most common criticism of natural law ethics in philosophy is that what IS should not be confused with what OUGHT TO BE. Ask them what does this mean and do they agree or disagree? Why? And what do you yourself think?
 Discuss the Heinz Dilemma (LINK (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.) https://www.youtube.comiwatch?v=JIYJrcDmY with two different people (one male and one female) and, before discussing the feminist ethics of care, ask each of them separately how they’d resolve it. Share their ideas with the class. And, whatever the results, indicate also what you think about Gilligan’s ethics of care as a feminist moral theory (see the list on page 67 of the eText of traits generally associated with a male as compared to a female ethical perspective).
Canada entered World War One as another country considered to be part of the British colony, and left it with a refined sense of nationalism that would finally lead to the end of Britain’s authority over Canada. The Canadian victory in Vimy ridge brought Canada a sense of pride. Women’s active role in Canada during World War One changed the views of many Canadians in a positive way. Canada’s achievements during the Great World War made Canadians have more love and loyalty to their country. Men and women had battled relentlessly during World War One and earned great respect from their country, which caused the increase of Canadian nationalism. Canada’s involvement and victory in the battle of Vimy Ridge changed the views of many Canadian’s and it brought them a greater sense of nationalism. “Historians have said ‘Canadian nationalism was born atop the Vimy Ridge in the northern France on April 9, 1917, when the 100,000- strong Canadian corps claimed a strategic prize from the Germans near Arras, France that other allies had failed to capture’.” After Canada conquered Vimy ridge, Canada was the first allied force that achieved a victory against the Germans. Canadian troops from then on gained the reputation of being tough, courageous, and successful fighters. Their outstanding achievement in the battle of Vimy ridge is what brought them a sense of pride. The feeling of empowerment and respect from other nations is what enhanced Canadian nationalism during and after the Great World War. Canada’s achievements in the battle of Vimy Ridge brought a great sense of accomplishment to many Canadians. “The victory at Vimy, won by troops from every part of the country, helped unite many Canadians in pride at the courage of their citizen-soldiers, and established a feeling of real nationhood.”During the battle of Vimy Ridge, it was the first time all Canadians fought together in a combined force. This encouraged troops to come together as one nation and work as a team to defeat the Germans at Vimy Ridge and is what helped unite many Canadians in a sense of greatness and pride. This is what made Canada considered an independent nation and that is what contributed to the increase of Canadian nationalism. The outlook of many Canadians changed as the success and victory of the battle of Vimy Ridge had brought them a better sense of nationalism. “It is difficult to avoid the conclusion that if Vimy Ridge had been captured by a British or French formation instead of the Canadian Corps, this action would not enjoy its current celebrity,” ‘Sheffield writes.”Vimy Ridge resonates largely because of its role in the growth of Canadian nationalism.”‘ Canadians after the success of Vimy Ridge believed that they could stand on their own two feet and fight for them selves without the help of Britain or other allied nations. This proved Canada was a strong country and an independent one too. This in turn is what made Canada have a greater sense of devotion to its country. The role of women in Canada during World War One changed the perspective of many Canadians and increased their sense of nationalism. “Women were an essential component of the Canadian war effort and their efforts on the home front, in factories as well as on the battlefront were important to a successful outcome.”During World War One woman were called on by necessity to do work and take on roles that were outside their traditional expectations. They became an important part of Canadian society, and became more valued by the people of Canada. This wasn’t considered the norm back in the day for women to be doing things like that. By Canada encouraging women to be involved in helping out in the war and at the home front, more Canadians have a greater sense of nationalism because they feel like their treating women with more respect. Canadian women performed no less than men did during the Great War. “Many Canadian women worked in factories. Their contribution to the war showed that women had great courage and could do the same things the men could do.”  Women moved into the labor force to do the jobs of men so that they can earn a living, help out the country and the men fighting over seas. This increased nationalism in Canada because Women had gained more rights and had a more active role in the society, which brought Canada closer to its national identity.>