Write an essay that includes the following in your discussion: • a comparison of the sentencing and court structures of the American court system, •a description and a comparison of indeterminate and structured sentencing, ea description of the four sentencing options currently employed within the American sentencing structure, and •provide examples where each would be an appropriate application for punishment.
Language is the most important process in people s lives either if it’s written, spoken or non-verbal. People would not be able to socialize or interact without language. Across the centuries just as people built bridges to link cities,people used language interpreters and translators in order to built bridges between other cultures. What exactly translation is? Sonia Colina claims that Translation may refer to an activity or a product and the field that studies both activity and product. Translation is the process of transferring the meaning of written texts of one language to another language. There is a lot of confusion between “translators” and “interpreters”, but the two terms are very different in many ways. Translators take a written text in one language: e-mail, articles, newspapers, books or academic papers and translate it into another language by writing it down on the paper. It implies time and study of the texts while the interpreters work together with other people either virtually or directly or over the phone, internet or public meetings. The great differences between translators and interpreters is that a translation can take days, weeks or even months depending on the length of the text while interpreting is a process carried out in real time. It is very difficult and very challenging for interpreters to do their job because they must be very fast in both languages and precise, they have no time to consult the dictionary, a colleague. Interpreters have great responsibility especially when they interpret in a political context, one mistranslated word can issue great political wars. Translators on the other hand are more relaxed being able to stay in their own environment, have breaks, and use their dictionaries or grammar books. I explained therefore the difference between translation and interpretation, but I wonder is Translation a process which appeared in the current century or it had existed in the past as well? The process of translating or decoding started centuries ago Along the history we notice that trades were made through people who were able to speak their one language but also another language.The Bible which was crucial in the 8th century managed to be translated by some of the most well-known people: Martin Luther,St.Jerome William Tyndale etc. People who did not have access to education could not understand the religious services spoken in Latin. Therefore Translation was necessary in order for ordinary people to understand the holy service and to have a more personal knowledge and approach towards God. With the spread of Christianity, translation started to gain another role which was the spreading of God’s word. The Bible of the “chosen people” was originally written in Hebrew.When the Persian empire dominated the Eastern Mediteranean basin, Aramaic became the official language of the area and for religious reasons it was necessary for the Jewish to have the Torah OR Pentateuch (the first 5 books of the Bible) translated into the common language from traditional Hebrew.The result was Targums which survived after the original Hebrew scrolls had been lost. By the mid of the 3rd century a.d. Greek was the dominant language and Jewish scholars started to translate the Hebrew religious text into that language.Septuagint became the Greek version of the Jewish Bible. The zeal of Christianity needed more translators of both the Old and New Testament into:Coptic, Ethiopian,Gothic and Latin. Early translators>