Write a 500 minimum word essay on your reaction to and reflection on the film Ishi: https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=0ZB9oKQaCN48,feature=youtu.be
Ishi: The Last Yahi (1992)
The film begins in 1492 when there were more than ten million Native Americans in North America.
By 1910, their numbers had been reduced to fewer than 300,000. In California. massacres of Indians in the 1860s and 1870s had nearly exterminated the Native peoples in the state.
Therefore the sudden appearance in northern California in 1911 of Ishi, “the last wild Indian in North America,” stunned the nation.
For more than 40 years, Ishi had lived in hiding with a tiny band of survivors. When he walked into the white man’s world, he was the last Yahi Indian alive.
For young anthropologist Alfred Kroeber, Ishi’s appearance was a windfall. Kroeber had been searching for years to find “wild, uncontaminated Indians” who could document their traditional way of life.
Through Kroeber’s invitation, Ishi left a jail cell and lived out the remaining four years of his life as an informant and teacher at the Museum of Anthropology in San Francisco. Ishi dedicated those years to relating Yahi stories and demonstrating the traditional way of life he knew so well.
His quiet dignity and remarkable lack of bitterness toward the people who had destroyed his tribe greatly impressed
basis of Rosch (1975, cited by Field, 2003, p. 102.), and consisted of nine words that had to be evaluated on a 7-item scale, on which 1 means the least typical, and 7 is the most typical instance. In the second part of the questionnaire participants had to define the same categories with their own words. The aim of the five open-ended items was to identify the basic attributes participants used to formulate a definition of the categories. These answers were then compared with the results of the judgements of prototypicality in the previous task, with the purpose of giving an account for the similarities and differences in the two kinds of mental operations. 3.2. Participants The research was carried out with the participation of 25 respondents. They were approached through personal contacts on the Internet. The average age of the participants is 22.4 years, and the gender proportion is almost equal (with 13 male and 12 female respondents). 4. Results and discussion The aim of this section is to present and analyse the data of the empirical study, with the purpose of finding answers to the research questions. 4.1. The judgements of typicality The results of the judgements of the typicality of the instances of the categories are in line with Rosch’s (1975) findings that prove that the typicality of certain instances is evaluated very similarly by different people. Table 1 shows the order of the words within the categories: Table 1. The order of instances within the categories based on the respondents’ evaluation on a 1-7 scale. Furniture Bird Vehicle Fruit Woman table 6.85 blackbird 6.92 car 7 apple 7 mother 7 dresser 6.77 hawk 6.92 bus 7 orange 7 nurse 6.76 chair 6.76 sparrow 6.87 subway 6.69 pear 6.93 teacher 6.67 stool 5.61 raven 6.77 taxi 6.08 melon 6.54 actress 6.54 lamp 4.08 parrot 6.62 cart 5.77 mango 6.54 ballerina 6.23 piano 3.62 canary 6.54 yacht 4.08 fig 6.23 doctor 5.92 vase 2.39 ostrich 5.30 elevator 2 nut 3.23 police-woman 4.77 picture 2.30 penguin 4.85 ski 1.85 pumpkin 2.84 miner 3.30 telephone 1.92 bat 1.38 wheel-barrow 1.69 olive 2.30 football player 2.46 The evaluation of the prototypicality of the items seems to be based on several factors. The first factor is the appearance of the items, which influenced the judgements of prototypicilaty in the case of, for instance, the categories of bird or fruit, where the most typical instances have a lot in common with regards to physical appearance. Another aspect is the frequency of the items, that is, how often respondents encounter the given instance of the category in real life. The category of fruit is a good example for the importance of this factor, in which apple and orange were the ones being judged as most typical instances, and the less frequently consumed exotic fruits like mango or fig scored lower. Another example is the category of bird, in which the different evaluations of blackbird and canary cannot be accounted for in terms of physical appearance (they are quite similar in size and form). The frequency of the two species, on the other hand, is different, as the blackbird is a more common type of bird than the canary. A final factor in the judgement of the typicality of the objects is cultural schemata and stereotypes. The best example of the importance of cultural factors can be seen in the category of woman, where the traditionally feminine roles (e.g. mother, nurse or teacher) scored higher than the traditionally masculine professions (e.g. policewoman, miner or football player). Our culturally bound schemas are in work in the case of vehicles as well, where car and bus embody the best instance, while cart scored considerably lower. The fact that protypicality is a universal phenomenon of our minds is suggested not only by the consistency of the answers, but also by the fact that the findings are very similar to the results of the original experiment by Rosch, as summarised by Aitchison (1987, p. 53): “On the bird list, sparrow, canary, blackbird, dove and lark all came out high. Parrot, pheasant, albatross, toucan, and owl were somewhat lower. Flamingo, duck and peacock were lower still. Ostrich, em>