• Compare and contrast Francisco Goya’s The Family of Charles IV (24.2) and Diego Velázquez’ The Maids of Honor (19.38).
• In what ways do Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres and Eugène Delacroix seemingly represent the opposing forces of early nineteenth-century French painting? What specific works by these artists exemplify their attitudes and artistic philosophies?
• In what ways is Salvador Dali’s The Persistence of Memory (28.16) exemplary of Surrealism?
• Describe Dadaism in Berlin and Cologne.
• How is the “universal order” reflected in Piet Mondrian’s Composition with Red, Blue, and Yellow (28.27)?
• How is a sense of nationalism shown in Diego Rivera’s Man, Controller of the Universe (28.50)?
• What is the meaning of the symbolism used by Frida Kahlo in The Two Fridas (28.51)?
• What is Representational Surrealism?
• How does Constructivism differ from De Stijl?
• How did the machine aesthetic influence the designs of Le Corbusier?
who do manage to matriculate, they still struggle to read and write at a level of success for the university because of inadequate academic preparation. To change these statistics and recreate an educational system that can provide education success for all children, resources in addition to a focused and strong leadership are a must. Mandela advocates change in education, and brings others together to share the same vision. The Nelson Mandela Institute mandates “to work globally to achieve Mr. Mandela’s visions for education and rural development” and “is inspired by a common future shaped by the minds and creativity of all children.” “It is not beyond our power to create a world in which all children have access to quality education.Â Those who do not believe this have small imaginations.” Nelson Mandela, ’07 http://www.ncrel.org/policy/pubs/html/leadersh/goodschl.htm http://www.newhorizons.org/trans/gardner.htm Whether the leader of a country like Nelson Mandela or the leader of a school system, one must be able to communicate the vision of the organization. School systems, like countries, need dynamic leadership by individuals that realize the potential of the young people following their guide. School leaders have a responsibility to their public; they should both influence and inspire the students and the staff. They should act less like a boss making commands and more like an artist creating unbounded imaginations. They must be able to develop a clear sense of purpose as it is important for people to see where they are going. In addition to direction, effective school leaders should elicit from their staff and students both trust and respect. It is important to remember that both trust and respect are earned by the leader through their actions and are not a guarantee. “The task of the leader is to get his people from where they are to where they have not been.” Henry Kissinger http://www.bgsu.edu/departments/acs/1890s/plessy/plessy.html http://brownvboard.org/summary/ American schools, not unlike the South African schools, have seen many struggles. It has been because of dynamic people (principals, teachers, and students) that our systems have evolved to where they are. Like South Africa, racial discrimination is not a stranger to the American school systems. It was the voice and dedication of a few that allowed our school systems to change and grow. A little over sixty years ago the states overturned Plessy v. Ferguson. Plessy v. Ferguson was an 1896 Supreme Court ruling most remembered as the “separate but equal” ruling. It was a decision that served as justification for racial discrimination until Oliver Brown and others brought complaint against the school systems. In Topeka, Kansas Linda Brown, an African-American student, lived right across from a school, but because of the color of her skin could not attend this “white” school. Under the counsel of Thurgood Marshall this discriminatory practices were being challenged. The ruling in Brown v. Board of Education not only affected the educational system, it ended legal racial discrimination. Discriminatory practices can damage the good of the whole, but strong leadership can build bridges and fill gaps. “Good schools, like good societies and good families, celebrate and cherish diversity.” Deborah Meier School leaders create exponential change simply by caring for people and giving them a chance to succeed. When inspiring the minds of children in a school setting it can be thought that success is never final. Our behavior and our beliefs are carried on through the minds and actions of many. That is a great responsibility knowing that as an academic leader we can affect so greatly, so many. This undertaking has to be done with openness of ones mind and willingness to celebrate other’s successes and not our own. Imagine yourself as the principal of one of those “white” schools when the Supreme Court ruled in Brown v. Board of Education. Imagine the strength and character needed to moderate such a change. During world change, it takes great character to evaluate how your personal ideals fit into the role that you must serve. Leading is not limited to times of progression when everyone is inviting openly whatever circumstances may be needed for the change. >