- What were the goals and results of Franklin roosevelt’s early foreign policy? 2. how and why did isolationism come to dominate american public opinion and foreign policy in the 1930s? 3. how did the United States gradually awaken to the threat of totalitarian aggression in the late 1930s while still attempting to avoid foreign entanglements? 4. Why did FDr’s increasingly bold moves to aid Britain in the fight against hitler stir such a fierce national debate over the risk of being drawn into war and the best way to preserve america’s security? 5. What issues and developments in Japanese-american relations led up to the surprise Japanese attack on pearl harbor?
The editorial describes all these as melancholy and wicked Popish delusions. Thus right from the outset Evangelicals, or at least some of them, saw the errors and responded to them, a fact that is not always recognised. Shortly afterwards Hurrell Froude, one of the original four died and his ‘theological remains’ were published in 1838. These showed unequivocally his opposition to the Protestant Reformation and his empathy for Medieval Catholicism. This seems to have woken others up to the real heart of the Tractarians who were becoming increasingly critical of the Church of England and idealistic regarding the Church of Rome. In 1841 Newman published his famous Tract 90 attempting to argue that the Articles, if properly understood, support Roman Catholic doctrine. Newman himself seems to have eventually recognised that his arguments were wrong because he left for Rome but others continued and still continue to argue the same points. I recall one clergyman arguing that his belief in purgatory was acceptable because the Articles denounce ‘the Romish doctrine of purgatory’ and that was not his doctrine. Eventually this perverse sort of reasoning had to be resolved and evangelicals found that they had to resort to law to do so. Evangelicals at the time, as today, were adamant that they were the legitimate Anglicans, the true heirs of the Reformed Church of England. The case of George Gorham therefore shook the movement to its roots. Bishop Philpotts of Exeter despised Evangelicals and when a Patron attempted to present Gorham to a living in the Diocese the Bishop argued and then set out to prove that Gorham did not hold to the doctrine of the Church on baptismal regeneration. This was serious because no evangelical believed in baptismal regeneration and nor did they believe that it was the doctrine of the church. If Gorham was rejected on this basis then all evangelicals could find themselves driven out. An appeal was therefore launched but the Bishop’s decision was initially upheld. Evangelicals however contested the issue right to the Privy Council where they won. For Anglo-Catholics this demonstrated the problem of establishment that a secular court, as they saw it, had the final say. For Evangelicals it was a reminder that within the Church hierarchy they were weak and often opposed whilst they had much stronger support amongst the laity, and particularly in parliament. More importantly it demonstrated that men like Philpotts could not be trusted to read the Articles and Prayer Book in its plain historical meaning, revisionism had begun. From an early stage Tractarianism was manifest in Ritualism and they founded the Church Union to promote their cause. In 1865 Evangelicals responded by forming the Church Association which from the outset had amongst its aims the goal of clarifying the law on ritual and doctrine. Thus a series of test cases were fought which mostly, though certainly not in every detail, upheld the Evangelical view. This ought to have settled matters, but of course it did not. The Ritualists still refused to abide by the law. The obvious thing would have been for Bishops to remove such clergy>