- Give a definition of subculture , mainly introduce Graffiti. In Melbourne, what is people’s attitude about
subcultures and graffiti.
- What is the subcultures effect to the lifestyle and society of Melbourne.
old system for a new improved irrigation method that resulted in the prosperity of orchards and the increase of rice crops in such areas as Granada and the Valenican huerta (Dickie, 1968). The Muslims utilised the method of Syrianization to improve agriculture of Spanish towns, especially Valencia and Seville (Burns, 1973). The new system allowed Spaniards to intensify crops with the help of artificial water supply (Smith, 1966, p.442). Up to the present day this irrigation system has been controlled by an old Muslim tribunal (Tribunal of the Waters); today this Tribunal is held once a week and is aimed at solving disputable agricultural issues. Due to these improvements, Spanish people began to cultivate various plants and trees, such as oranges, lemons, artichokes, apricots, olive and implemented an advanced system of nature protection (Imamuddin, 1965, p.84). Before the Islamic invasion, Spanish grew winter crops, but the Muslims managed to implement Indian crops that were grown in a frost-free season. As a result, many Arabic words were introduced in Spanish language to reflect different aspects of the irrigation system; for instance, alberca-al-birka means a pool and acequia-al-saqiya means an irrigation ditch. Nowadays some flowers bear the Arabic names, such asbellota-balluta for acorn, alazor-al-asfur for safflower and al-fasfasa foralfalfa. Other words reflect the impact of the Muslims on farming: tahona-tahuna (flour-mill), aldea-al-day’s (village), and rabadan-rabb al-da’n (head-shepherd). As the Muslims were obsessed with nature, they utilised their artistic skills to create splendid gardens and buildings that have attracted attention of people till nowadays (Blair & Bloom, 1994). Such unusual places as the Alhambra of Granda, the Mosque of Cordoba and the Alcazar of Seville are the visual legacy of the Muslims in Spain (Barrucand & Bednorz,1992; Ettinghausen & Grabar, 1987). These splendid architectural buildings clearly reveal the Muslims’ innovations in the fields of architectural design and style(King, 1978; Grabar, 1978; Rodriguez, 1992). Unfortunately, almost all Islamic architectural monuments were destroyed at the end of the fifteenth century; only the Alhambra remained undamaged (Fletcher, 1987). Many famous writers and artists depicted the Alhambra in their works (Ching, 1979). For instance, Washington Irving created Tales of the Alhambra when he visited this place in Spain. Despite the destruction of many Islamic buildings (Barrucand & Bednorz, 1992), a new Islamic mosque for Spanish Muslims hasbeen recently built in Granada as a result of Islam renewal in 1989. The Muslims are able to pray in the mosque and receive education in such sciences as medicine and law. Today the number of the Muslims in Spain approaches to onemillion people who strongly defend their rights and their faith. Some Spanish Muslims continue to live in the Albaican quarter in Granada, where the Muslims lived in the 10-15 centuries. However, the tensions between Spanish Muslims and Spanish Christians are rather complicated, although Spanish government realises that it is crucial to improve the relations between these two religious groups. Analysing the impact of the Islamic invasion on the history of Spain, the essay suggests that the Muslims considerably affected such areas of Spanish life as economics, culture, science, architecture, art and religion. They managed to improve the country’s agriculture and manufacturing, contributing to its prosperity and wealth; they implemented many advanced systems based >