Write an essay on how key elements of the supervisory process are influenced by theories of motivation.
a reaction to the Black Death. We may also notice an interest in the symbolic rather than realistic representation of figures in the St John the Baptist Altarpiece (1370/80) by Giovanni del Biondo, where John tramples his enemy, Herod, underfoot. John has the same austere look and there is the same sense of psychological withdrawal that has been observed in the face of Christ in the Strozzi Altarpiece. However, in Padua it is difficult to discover much evidence for the rejection of ‘realism’ in artistic style during the second part of the century. Altichiero’s decoration of Lupi’s funerary chapel in the Santo, far from attempting to distance the viewer, uses space and form to draw the spectator in. His use of landscape reminds us of Lorenzetti and his figures are clearly inspired by Giotto, especially the women who gather near the foot of the cross and embrace in a manner reminiscent of Joachim and Anna and the angels who have the substance and expression of those we see in the Arena Chapel. The scale, proportion and design of this fresco suggest that this scene is being played out just beyond the walls of the church and that we are viewing it as though through the arches of a loggia. The colours are harmonious and subdued and there is an impression of nearness and reality. Altichiero’s style is more developed and detailed than earlier works, but its underlying intent and spirit owes much to his legacy from the earlier fourteenth century. In Siena we also find more contradictory interpretations of the changes that occurred in the mid-century. Henk Van Os has described the way in which social upheavals following the Black Death led to profound changes in patronage: the wealthy elite lost much of their political power and a class of nouveau riche sprang up who had less interest in artistic commissioning. Much of the art became imitative and conservative and was more often commissioned in the provinces surrounding Siena. In the city itself, only the wealthy body of the Ospedale of Santa Maria della Scala, which had received many bequests from victims of the Black Death, continued commissioning new altarpieces, one of which, by Bartolommeo Bulgarini, included the Assumption of the Virgin, a painting which Van Os believes to exhibit “very full, monumental figures, entirely in the tradition of Pietro Lorenzetti” (Van Os, 1981, 245). He argues that this painting does not show signs of the flat, hierarchical, mystical design which Meiss attributed to it, but that it takes the form of a “plastically realistic version” of the Assumption and so stands within the earlier traditions of Sienese painting (Van Os, 1981, 245). Certainly, the treatment of the Virgin and the use of elaborate gold effects reflect the Sienese craftsmanship established by Duccio and Simone Martini. Van Os concludes that changes in artistic production after the Black Death were principally due to different sites of patronage rather than changes in religious thought . The third aspect of the debate concerns the question of whether Meiss was right to propose that there was a single significant shift around 1348. Smart and Norman, for example, argue that the Strozzi Altarpiece was not such a significant departure as Meiss had argued because the precedent for such a depiction of Christ had been set in the Stefaneschi Altarpiece, painted by one of Giotto’s associates and dated late 1320s – early 1330s (Smart, 1978, 122 an>