Explain Locke’s Causal Theory of Perception? What is it meant to explain? What relation does it bear to the Primary Quality/Secondary Quality distinction? Does his theory succeed? 2. Searle argues that the mind can be causally reduced to the brain but it cannot be ontologically reduced to the brain. Explain what he means by these two notions. Why, according to Searle, does the causal reduction fail to produce a corresponding ontological reduction in the case of the reduction of mental phenomena to brain phenomena? Is Searle correct? Why or why not?
actively. Diverger (innovative learner) learns more effectively when she or he is able to perceive concretely and to process reflectively. Assimilator (analytic learner) learns more effectively when she or he is able to perceive abstractly and to process reflectively. Accommodator (dynamic learner) learns more effectively when she or he is able to perceive concretely and to process actively. 22.214.171.124 Sensory Learning Styles According to Reid (1995), sensory learning styles include two dimensions: Perceptual learning styles and environmental learning styles. Perceptual learning styles contain four types of learning styles which are auditory, visual, tactile and kinesthetic styles. Auditory learners learn more effectively through the ears; visual learners learn more effectively through the eyes (seeing); tactile learners learn more effectively through touch (hands-on); kinesthetic learners learn more effective through concrete complete body experiences (whole-body movement). Physical and sociological styles belong to the environmental learning styles. Physical learners learn more effectively when such variables as temperature, sound, light, food, mobility, time, and classroom/study arrangement are considered. Sociological learners learn more effectively when such variables as group, individual, pair and team work, or levels of teacher authority are considered. 126.96.36.199 Affective/Temperament Learning Styles Learning styles of this type are based on affect, personality, tolerance of ambiguity and brain hemisphere. Myer and Briggs (1987, cited in Reid, 1995) report that affective and personality factors influence learners’ learning styles a great deal. Mayer-Briggs team tested four dichotomous styles of functioning in their Mayer and Briggs Temperament Styles (MBTI) which include extraversion-introversion, sensing-perception, thinking-feeling, and judging-perceiving. According to Reid (1995), extroverted and introverted styles belong to extraversion-introversion. Extroverted learner learns more effectively through concrete experience, contract with the outside world, and relationships with others; whereas introverted learner learns more effectively in individual, independent situations that are more involved with ideas and concepts. Sensing-perception contains sensing and perception styles. Sensing learner learns more effectively from reports of observable facts and happenings; prefers physical, sense-based input. Conversely, perception learner learns more effectively from meaningful experiences and from relationships with others. In thinking-feeling styles, thinking learner learns more effectively from impersonal circumstances and logical consequence; whereas feeling learner learns more effectively from personalized circumstances and social values. And in judging-perceiving styles, judging learner learns more effectively by reflection, and analysis, and processes that involve closure; conversely, perceiving learner learns more effectively through negotiation, feeling, and inductive processes that postpone closure. Reid (1995) suggests that tolerance of ambiguity styles also belong to the affective/temperament learning styles. Ambiguity-tolerant learner learns more effectively when opportunities for experiment and risk, as well as interaction, are present; whereas ambiguity-intolerant learners learns more effectively when in less flexible, less risky, more structured situations. Reid (1995) also claims that whether the learner is left-brained or right-brained wi>