Who is the Client?
On page 149, Charlie Maher and Jim Taylor briefly address issues related to who is your client, by asking you to consider and identify your client base. The question, “Who is your Client?” is also a philosophical, professional, legal and ethical question for you to contemplate as you begin to work in Performance Psychology environments.
Please address and discuss in detail how you will clearly establish, communicate and manage your boundaries in consulting environments where you manage multiple clients (ie. parent/child, coach/athlete, employer/employee). In doing so, work under the premise that confidentiality is assumed, yet you will still have to communicate with both clients: (1) the client you are working with and (2) the client who may be paying you.’
The learning process of language in children is shaped by the social phenomena that the child is immersed in, where these social phenomena be non-verbal or verbal dyadic or polyadic interactions between the child and others. Lourdes De Leon’s (1998) paper The Emergent Participant: Interactive Patterns in the Socialization of Tzotzil (Mayan) Infants demonstrates how different social activities that a child is immersed in reflect their development of language through the Tzotzil (Mayan) infant community, located in the highlands of Chiapas, Mexico. Leon successfully evidently shows that children are immersed into different social polyadic interactions even before they have learned the language allowing them to develop their own roles that reflect their language skills. The Tzotzil (Mayan) infant communities demonstrate how the children gain knowledge of their language by participating in “multiparty interactions” (León 1998, p.134) where these interactions are verbal or non-verbal. As the child develop knowledge about social identities of other participants, interactive goals of the activity, and how the structure of verbal and non-verbal communication is performed, the children are able occasionally form and assign their own roles in a social phenomenon called the addressee, embedded speaker, side participant, over hearer, and the eavesdropper. Leon proposes that children “emerge as social participants” (León 1998, p.134) further highlighting that even before learning the Tzotzil language, the Mayan children are immersed in the “multiparty interactions” demonstrating that the roles assigned to the children in polyadic interactions reflect the child’s development of language. A child’s development in language does not depend on a minimum number of social phenomena that the child is able to participate in but it depends on the “dyadic address” between the child and the mother.Â Dyadic interactions are the child’s main source of learning experience for language as the child spends the majority of their time with their mothers “eaves dropping” conversations. Leon’s studies of two early Tzotzil (Mayan) infants, named Mal and Mersi, were monitored and were observed to be immersed in dyadic, “close bodily interaction” (León 1998, p.151) with their parents from their birth. At a very young age the infants are mainly assigned with the role of the eaves dropper as the parent is the only speaker in the dyadic interaction. Rhetorical questions and eye level communication are observed to be used by the parent towards the child to achieve “conjoint attention and compliance” (León 1998, p.151). The infants are able to participate at the age of four months old and are assigned to the role of an over hearer or an implied participant in a dyadic interaction where words are “put into their mouths” by the parent. Similarly, these rhetorical questions are used by the parent to allow the child to participate in a conversation as an embedded speaker (Leon 1998, p.146). In Leon’s findings, the Mayan families “routinely” immerse the infants in social activities where the parent tells the infant to address other family members which in turn allows the child to develop an understanding of how com>