“Some chemicals that we use in our everyday lives including medicines (such as prescription and non-prescription drugs), personal hygiene products (for example, soaps, disinfectants, …) and their chemical additives (such as preservatives) are present in the environment and associated with various sources such as municipal wastewater treatment plants, runoff from agricultural and urban land surfaces, and septic systems. These contaminants are referred to collectively as “contaminants of emerging concern” (CEC) and represent a shift in traditional thinking as many are produced industrially yet are dispersed to the environment from domestic uses” (USGS).
Several CECs have been detected downstream of River May which is to be abstracted for the provision of drinking water for a rural community of 3000 residents. A refinery is located 20 km upstream of the point of abstraction. The refinery discharges its effluent into the river and high levels of PAHs have also been detected in the river water.
The key CECs that has been detected includes:
CEC Levels in River May
1,4-Dioxane 2 mg/l
Ethinyl Estradiol (17-alpha ethynyl estradiol) 15 ng/l
Erythromycin 80 ng/l
Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) 200 ng/l
Carbamazepine 430 ng/l
Bisphenol A 100 ng/l
Diclofanac 150 ng/l
PAH 300 ng/l
- Propose a design solution for the treatment of the River May water for potable use. Justify your proposed solution (800 words).
- Critically evaluate the occurrence and treatment of a chosen CEC in either Europe, North America or Asia (1200).
Learning styles of this type are based on affect, personality, tolerance of ambiguity and brain hemisphere. Myer and Briggs (1987, cited in Reid, 1995) report that affective and personality factors influence learners’ learning styles a great deal. Mayer-Briggs team tested four dichotomous styles of functioning in their Mayer and Briggs Temperament Styles (MBTI) which include extraversion-introversion, sensing-perception, thinking-feeling, and judging-perceiving. According to Reid (1995), extroverted and introverted styles belong to extraversion-introversion. Extroverted learner learns more effectively through concrete experience, contract with the outside world, and relationships with others; whereas introverted learner learns more effectively in individual, independent situations that are more involved with ideas and concepts. Sensing-perception contains sensing and perception styles. Sensing learner learns more effectively from reports of observable facts and happenings; prefers physical, sense-based input. Conversely, perception learner learns more effectively from meaningful experiences and from relationships with others. In thinking-feeling styles, thinking learner learns more effectively from impersonal circumstances and logical consequence; whereas feeling learner learns more effectively from personalized circumstances and social values. And in judging-perceiving styles, judging learner learns more effectively by reflection, and analysis, and processes that involve closure; conversely, perceiving learner learns more effectively through negotiation, feeling, and inductive processes that postpone closure. Reid (1995) suggests that tolerance of ambiguity styles also belong to the affective/temperament learning styles. Ambiguity-tolerant learner learns more effectively when opportunities for experiment and risk, as well as interaction, are present; whereas ambiguity-intolerant learners learns more effectively when in less flexible, less risky, more structured situations. Reid (1995) also claims that whether the learner is left-brained or right-brained will influence learner’s learning styles. Left-brained learners tend toward visual, analytic, reflective, self-reliant learning; conversely, right-brained learners tend toward auditory, global/relational, impulsive, interactive learning. 184.108.40.206 Sensory Learning Styles Visual styles Visual students enjoy reading and they prefer material in a classroom environment to be presented in a visual format such as books, board work, and handouts. Auditory styles Auditory students enjoy lectures, conversations and oral directions. They prefer material in a classroom environment that is presented as auditory input such as radio, oral instruction, oral communication and audiotape. Hands-on styles Hands-on students like lots of movement and enjoy working with collages, flashcards, and tangible objects. They prefer to be physically involved with tasks, tending to prefer activities such as Total physical Response (TPR) and role-play. 220.127.116.11 Personality Learning Styles Extroversion/Introversion The dimension of styles particularly influences classroom management, especially grouping of students. Extroverted students perform most productively in a group environment, enjoying activities that involve other students, such as role-play, conversation and other interaction favoring social goals as opposed to impersonal rewards. Conversely, introverted students are stimulated most by their own inner world of ideas and feelings. They like working alone or else in a pair with someone they know well. They dislike lots of continuous group work in the ESL/EFL classroom. This contrast is somewhat similar to the categories of group/individual style made by Reid (1987).>