We’ve conducted an experiment in class that was supposed to measure our attention (covert and overt attention) by conducting posner’s cueing experiment (which we must mention in this paper). Citing only in introduction part .
Number of participants – 24 people, all from College, ethnesity-random, age between 18- 30 years old. Psychology software to run the experiment ( we needed to press “M” key after we saw the Astrid
If you pressed ‘M’ key after fixation cross – incorrect .feedback 2. “M” key right after cue – feedback 3.
Give the breakout of overall trials , explain what is the consistent( when the arrow pointing to the same side of the cue), inconsistent trial( arrows on the opposite side of the cue), catch trial (when we have a cue, but no asterisk –
Result has to be 2 sentences : we’ve conducted a paired sample t test and found a t value to be t(23)=5.39 with p less than 0.05. The found significant difference between consistent and inconsistent trials such that consistent had a lower reaction time , inconsistent higher reaction time.
Discussion part : start with saying whether you are accepting or rejecting Hypothesis
5-6 pages of content.
Need to mention Posner’s cueing tests, and include one more source with the same studies on covert attention. Mention what is covert attention, overt attention.
-Need to mention what in the test is showing that we are measuring covert and overt attention.
with individual and group psychotherapy, may play a vital role in empowering females to combat the negative effects of shame. Women who maintain supportive interpersonal relationships post-abuse are uniquely empowered to feel less trapped, powerless, and isolated. Interpersonal Relationships While those directly involved with sexual abuse are the true victims, friends, peers, and family members to whom this negative experience is disclosed are also impacted by the negative consequences. Victims of sexual abuse are typically not prepared for what they experience, and neither are those they reach out to for support. Each person to whom this information is disclosed responds differently. Wile the majority tend to respond positively, there are some who do respond negatively (Ahrens & Campbell, 2000). Some results have shown that negative reactions include, but are not limited to, feelings sorry for the victims, blaming the assault on the victim instead of the perpetrator, and minimizing the seriousness and effect of the event (Popiel & Susskind, 1985). This negative response typically comes from a place of unpreparedness. Sexual abuse has far-reaching effects, and those who are indirectly affected (and their response to the survivors) should be examined. By providing education to peers and familial supports, in addition to providing a safe place for survivors of sexual assault to disclose their abuse experience, peers and familial supports will likely respond in a way that fosters trust, confidence, and courage. According to George, Winfield, and Blazer (1992), the majority (59% to 91%) of sexual assault victims disclose the event to family and friends because they view them as helpful and/or supportive. Very few report the information to formal agencies such as the police, the hospital, or a formal rape center. Research done by Ullman (1996) tested friends of rape victims and determined that participants did not feel more distressed than normal when they were told their friend was a victim of sexual assault. The results further showed that the friends were angry at the perpetrator and wanted to seek revenge but otherwise maintained positive feelings towards the survivor (Ullman, 1996). Because the results can vary from friend to friend, it is imperative that friends, family members, and supporters of survivors of sexual abuse are educated on their role in the process of recovery and healing. Sexual abuse affects more than just those who experience it first hand, it also impacts those who are trusted enough to help bear the weight and seriousness of this horrible experience. Exploring shame, one of the consequences of sexual abuse more thoroughly, will provide clarity to the healing process that survivors of undergo and the important role that women play in empowering female survivors to overcome their experience. Oftentimes, abuse-related shame is created by the secretive context under which it takes place, including threats to stay silent and not disclose the event to anyone and condemnation from the perpetrator towards the victim (Feiring & Taska, 2005). This shame can then lead one to feel trapped, powerless, and isolated (Brown, 2006). Shame requires a sense of self and an ability to compare oneself against a cultural standard (Feiring & Taska, 2005). Having a better understanding of shame will not only allow female survivors of sexual abuse to take steps towards healing, but will also help peers, family members, and friends to support survivors along this path. Feeling Less Trapped The word trapped is often thought of in the context of not being able to escape. Female survivors of sexual abuse often feel trapped by their experience. Researchers found that a consistent result of shame is an avoidance response so severe tat the individual prefers to hide rather than expose themselves (Barrett, Zahn-Waxler, & Cole, 1993). Additionally, shame promotes cognitive avoidance which is an intentional effort to avoid dealing with a stressor (Berliner &>