On page 149, Charlie Maher and Jim Taylor briefly address issues related to who is your client, by asking you to consider and identify your client base. The question, “Who is your Client?” is also a philosophical, professional, legal and ethical question for you to contemplate as you begin to work in Performance Psychology environments.
011a) This spread of cognitive deficits manifest itself across numerous domains from social to financial and occupational. For example, poor attention or attentive vigilance may result in an individual being unable to follow instructions or concentrate on a task in an occupational setting, or follow individual or group conversations in a social setting. Furthermore, schizophrenic individuals experience deficits in social cognition that create further difficulty within these settings such as theory-of-mind task performance (Tan et al., 2005) and perception of negative emotions, fear and facial affect in others (Penn et al, 1997). Research suggests that some of the cognitive deficits implicated in schizophrenia may develop prior to the onset of the disorder. A study by Jones & Rodgers (1994) identified 30 individuals with schizophrenia from a random sample of 5000 individuals born in 1946. All subjects had been tested for non-verbal, verbal and reading abilities, arithmetic, and vocabulary, at ages 8, 11 and 15. Their progressively low scores in relation to heathy peers indicated a risk factor for the disease. These results should be approached with caution as a dysfunctional home environment may also affect both the academic ability in children as well as contribute to the onset of the illness. Nevertheless, other research has found similar results suggesting the cognitive deficit in a young person is a significant risk factor (Caspi et al., 2003; Erlenmeyer-Kimling et al. 2000). Although the impact of antipsychotic medications on neurocogniton provides minimal benefits to patients (Keefe & Harvey, 2012), recent research has shown that patients who receive psychosocial support preform significantly better on several cognitive tasks than those who do not, suggesting that such interventions may be beneficial to those suffering with the disorder (Dalagdi et al., 2014). Structural abnormalities An abundance of research has aimed at identifying the structural deficits within schizophrenia. The most well documented deficits associated with the disorder are compromised white matter integrity (Kubicki et al., 2007) in addition to, a reduced grey matter volume across a range of neuroanatomical areas including the anterior cingulate, frontal and temporal lobes, hippocampus/amygdala and the thalamus (Shepard et al. 2002). Moreover, dorsolateral prefrontal cells have a simple dendritic organisation, indicating fewer synapses than a heathy individual (Kolb & Whishaw, 2009) What remains a source of debate within the literature of the brain structure of schizophrenia is whether the disorder is progressive throughout the life-span or is strictly a neurodevelopmental disorder. While the lion’s share of the sMRI research posits that the illness progressively affects both grey and white matter (for meta-analysis see Olabi et al., 2011), others have suggested that the ‘progressive’ structural abnormalities observed could more be a consequence of numerous confounding variables (e.g. low physical activity, smoking, stress, alcohol, cannabis, anti-psychotic medication ; Zi>