Explain why it is reasonable to expect policymakers (and other family policy professionals, such as advisers, therapists, etc.) to be aware of (know) their own biases, their own theories and assumptions about families? Give examples that show how these biases, theories, and assumptions influence their policy decisions.
200 WORDS OR MORE CHAPTER8
What evidence could be used to persuade a group of policymakers to fund a family-centered program to reduce juvenile delinquency in your community?
stronger than victim. Besides, many children want to appear themselves dominant on others and, pretend to be tough. Gottfredson and Hirshi (1990) proposed low self-control theory as a cause of bullying. This theory elucidate that low self control is the main source of aggressive behaviors. Also, the child is insensitive to others and, likes to hunt for instant gratification (Darmawan, 2010). Another theory highlighted by Darmawan, (2010) is differential association theory which suggests that individuals associated with felonious peers or living in an offending environment are involved in unsociable behaviors and often attracted towards bullying. In regards to this, Darmawan (2010) referred social learning theory of bandura (1977) and, describe three conditions that increase the likelihood of child’s hostile behavior i.e. when the model is persuasive enough or he/she is rewarded on bad deeds rather than punishment and has comparable features with child. Furthermore, Robert Angrew (2001) proposed general strain theory which explains negatives feelings created by strain can put the child at risk of adopting delinquent behaviors and it’s a coping strategy to release their stress (Erikson, Nielsen & Simonsen, 2012). Many studies found that children who suffered from physical or emotional abuse, maltreatment and, rejection are usually involved in bullying (Espelage et al., 2000). Most of the bullies resemble in their characteristics. Smokowski& Kelly, (2005) stressed that they are aggressive and likes to dominate themselves. Moreover, they tend to scare others because of their physical strength and disobedient attitude. Research suggests that their families are often unfriendly and indifferent towards them (Smokowski & Kopasz, 2005). Additionally, Carla Bennett, (n.d.) and Brown & Patterson (2012) enlightened that they are energetic, impulsive and have high self-esteem. They use their violence to get what they want and Lack sense of empathy for their victims. They are bad-tempered and cannot tolerate frustration (Blazer, 2005; Smokowski &Kopasz, 2005). In contrast, victims address peer abuse, more quiet, anxious and sensitive. They lack communication skills, problem solving ability and are unconfident. (Smokowski & Kopasz, 2005).Likewise Bennett, (n.d.); Boyle (2005) identified that they are physically weak, lack interpersonal skills and, hesitate to go to school. Such children have over protective family and their Parents fail to teach conflict resolution skills (Bennett, (n.d.); Smokowski & Kopasz, 2005). Psychologically bullying dispose devastating effects on child’s personality for both, victim and bully. This includes physical, academic, and psychosocial effects that have prodigious impact on individual’s life. Aluedeet al (n.d.) highlighted physical effect on victim that includes headaches, migraine, panic attacks, sweating, palpitation and frequent illness. Brown & Patterson (2012) and report on anti-bullying (2013) highlighted academic effects of bullying such as poor performance and, feeling reluctant in attending school. Studies suggest that such students fail to achieve excellence academically due to inability to concentrate (Darmawan, 2010; Adams &Lawrence, 2011). Besides, literature indicated that such children suffer from attention deficit disorder (Smokowski & Kopasz, 2005). Furthermore, according to Fekkeset al., (2014), the chances of developing psychosocial problems are relatively higher in victims as compare to non-victims. These individual faced great difficulty in building relationships and social adjustment. They are poor in making friends, group gathering and tends to remain alone most of the time due to the fear of getting hurt (Adams &Lawrence, 2011). In regards to this, they feel isolated and, have poor sense of belonging to groups and fam>