LO2 Design a programme architecture, identifying the set of interdependent projects and organisational functions that are required to achieve a given programme objective.
LO3 Critically evaluate the techniques and methods used to manage programmes in different business and organisational settings.
This assignment is an individual assignment.
Part a) [1,250 words]
Drawing on the Programme Mandate for the University of Cambford’s International Partnerships Programme, and with reference to appropriate academic theory and established programme management practice, prepare a Benefits Map for the programme, identifying:
( you can see the slid from benefits map to projects Lecture 5，very useful.)
a)The strategic objectives for the programme.
b)The likely benefits and any potential dis-benefits presented by the programme.
c)Key project outputs that could deliver these benefits.
1 Your Benefits Map should indicate how the project outputs contribute to bringing about the expected benefits and outcomes, and how these benefits and outcomes contribute to achieving the programme’s strategic objective.(200words)
2 Based on the Benefits Map, propose a suitable Programme Architecture which identifies the programme components (the key projects of the programme and any functional support activities
construction where the meaning of terms such as black are struggled over. Collective identities spoken through race, community and locality are, for all their spontaneity, powerful means to coordinate action and create solidarity (Solomos 2003:28). Race can therefore be theorised not as a natural category or regulation of the state, but as a political construction where identity can be formed in order to fight for social justice. This political use of race argues that racial divisions in society are a cause of major differences in quality of life, and therefore racial identity is of much more importance than other factors. Such division can however cause greater resentment amongst different social groups and put more emphasis on difference than on similarity. While positive discrimination by the dominant social group, in an attempt to redress the power balance between different segments of society, can often enflame racial tension. As Solomos (2003:192) argues, anti-racists are often depicted as doing more harm to race relations than extreme rightwing fanatics. This is because they highlight racial differences and polarise people between different racial identities. It could be argued however that anti-racists do not create racial tension, but merely highlight tension that is already there. In any case, the importance that race plays in everyday social life is clearly evident. Anwar (1998:99-100), for example, claims that racial discrimination against Asian people has been on the rise in recent years in Britain, and that in 1994 alone there were 170,000 instances of racially motivated crimes and threats, whilst an estimated 74 people have been killed by racist attacks between 1970 and 1989. Racial identity can motivate people not only to dislike and slander each other, but even to reach the extremes of violence and murder. With this in mind race is quite obviously, although without any ultimate justification, the deciding factor in a person’s identity in many social situations, overriding other factors such as gender, political affiliations or, very often, religion. Scott (2002) renders this assumption problematic however by researching the roots of racism from a Marxist perspective. Whilst race and racism clearly do have an important impact in social identity, this is for Scott a modern phenomenon with historically traceable roots. Scott argues that modern racism is intimately related with that of capitalism, and that whilst racism has always figured in societies in different forms, it is only with capitalism that it becomes a constant factor. Early slavery in the New World, for example, was largely made up from white slaves from England before the large influx from the West Indies and Africa. The English ruling classes had no qualms about exploiting the white working classes, but in the end the demand for labour at home rendered the practice of shipping white slaves over to the Americas as inefficient. Using Blackburn’s analysis of racism and capitalism, Scott (2002:167) argues that racism is linked to capitalist growth, national identity and the individualising of the populace. Its development was associated with several of those processes which have been held to define modernity: the growth of instrumental rationality, the rise of national sentiment and the nation-state, racialized perceptions of identity, the spread of market relations and wage labor, the development of administrative bureaucracies and modern tax systems, the growing sophistication of commerce and communication, the birth of consumer societies, the publication of news>